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The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Fall 2006 

Volume II Issue 7 

Number 77 

Knight Letters the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed 

to the Secretary, 11935 Beltsville Dr., Beltsville, Maryland 20705. 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $25 (regular) and $50 (sustaining). 

Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to 

the Editor, preferably by email (, 

or mailed to 1251 San Antonio Rd., Petaluma, CA 94952. 

© 2006 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 
'Catherine Sinclair and Lewis Carroll" © 2006 Morton Cohen. 

ISSN 0193-886X 

Mark Burstein, Editor in Chief 

Sarah Adams, Matthew Demakos, Associate Editors 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 

The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Andrew Sellon, 

Cindy Watter, 

Clare Imholtz, 

'^Vv -* 




A Day in Guildford 


Sarah Adams & Ray Kiddy 

Catherine Sinclair and Leivis Carroll: 


The Changing Landscape of Children's Literature 

There's Glory for You 

Morton N. Cohen 

Michael O'Connor 



Autumn in New York 


Andrew Sellon 6^ August A. Imholtz.Jr. 

Sic, Sic, Sic 


Get Out of Yale, Free 

The Alice Draivings: Copies, Forgeries, 

Bob the Bat, Today 

and Tenniel's Originals 

You Are: Old Father William ? 

Frankie Morris 

Album for Sale 

One More Impossible Thing Before Breakfast 

Evolution of a Dream-Child: Images of Alice 

Joel Birenbaum 

and Changing Conceptions of Childhood 

/ Daresay It 's a French Mouse 

Part III: The Edwardian Era 

Armelle Futterman 

Victoria Sears Goldman 

Model Making 




Pulp Friction 


From India, with Toves 


I Know It Begins with L 


Phantoms of the. Brain 


Devra Kunin 


Lewis Carroll & the Victorian Stage 
Daniel Singer 


The Hunting of the Snarks 





C. L. Dodgson Meets a Famous American Architect 
Edward Wakeling 



Books — A rticles — Cyberspace 

Academiaio — Exhibitions 

Performa n res — A uctions 

Media — Things 

■ WA-fcJHSj g g^e-fcl I ^ ^-UikBaLUSife:- 

r welve and a half years, 29 issues, 784 pages: 
my tenure at the helm of the Knight Letter 
has been a profound and abiding joy, but 
also has taken a Herculean amount of work, time, 
and effort. At this point, the exact configuration of 
who will be doing what to our magazine in the future 
is uncertain, but it is my sad duty (to my family) to 
say that I can no longer continue in this role. I will 
certainly be keeping a benevolent eye on each issue, 
functioning perhaps as an eminence grise to my 
successors, whoever he, she, or they may be. 

Many think of an editor as a kind of glorified 
spell-checker, which is, yes, one aspect, but it pales 
in comparison with the tasks of soliciting or finding 
articles and items, writing (every single word not 
specifically credited to an author is the editor's), 
keeping track of all Carrollian tidings and tidbits, 
corresponding with people around the world, working 
with authors, resolving conflicts and differences of 
opinion, spending large amounts of time with the 
designer, and so forth, ad infinitum. 

In these years, our little photocopied 4-to-8-page 
newsletter has grown up, and is now a 48-to-56-page 
magazine, with cover art, substantive articles, and an 
international readership. It has featured significant 
original pieces by Hilda Bohem, Jorge Luis Borges 
(a translation of an article previously unpublished 
in English), Morton Cohen, Matt Demakos, Nina 
Demurova, Martin Gardner, August Imholtz, Karoline 
Leach, Hugues Lebailly, Kate Lyon, Frankie Morris, 
John Tufail, and Edward Wakeling, among a host 
of others. There have been many important articles 
on translation by native speakers of languages other 
than English. La Guida di Bragia saw print for the first 
time since 1931, replete with newly commissioned 
illustrations. We have given many artists their first 
wide exposure to the Carrollian world. As befits a 
serious publication, we added to our pages letters 

to the editor, a plethora of art (often original) and 
cartoons, numbered pages, an ISSN number, a table 
of contents, and, of course, the fabulous art direction 
and design talents of Andrew Ogus. 

In these years, we have also gone from a word- 
processor to desktop publishing to professional 
computer-aided design. The Internet has had an 
enormous effect on the sheer volume of information 

I have so very much enjoyed being at the center 
of All Things Alice (at least in North America) during 
my tenure. Also, the opportunity to learn on the 
job what it is a real editor does (and exactly how he 
does it) directly enabled me to make the transition 
from software development into my new profession 
as a book editor, with experience and credibility. I 
am at work on my seventh title for a major publisher 
as we speak. I guess I have grown up along with the 
magazine. This may be as good a time as any to thank 
my wife, Llisa, for all her help and tolerance, and 
to say to my kids, Martin and Sonja, that Daddy will 
occasionally be visible on weekends now. 

For the first twenty-one years of its existence, 
Knight Letter was in the hands of the Society president, 
who generally edited it himself; I was asked to 
be the first nonpresidential editor at the Second 
International Lewis Carroll Conference in Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina, in June of 1994. I have every 
confidence that our new president, Andrew Sellon, 
will find just the right combination of people to 
continue producing this eminent journal. 

From the bottom of my heart, I thank the many 
people, sung and unsung, who have contributed to 
this endeavor throughout the years. 

"Go on till you come to the end: then stop." 

Mark Burstein 

T^ 1 




So much has been written 
about Lewis Carroll, so 
many avenues explored, 
so many of his utterances exam- 
ined, and so many theories pro- 
pounded that one wonders if there 
are any areas yet to be explored, 
any new light to be shed, any new 
awarenesses to be garnered. The 
truth of the matter is that much re- 
mains to be done. 

One of the tasks I set myself 
when working on his biography 
was to hunt down and read the 
books that had an obvious impact 
on him. I found the exercise most 
rewarding. In examining Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge's Aids to Reflection 
(1825) and the influence it had 
on Carroll, then connecting that 
influence with Carroll's friendship 
with F. D. Maurice and a gleaning 
of religious comments that Carroll 
recorded here and there about his 

Little •maidens, wden you took 
On -this little sto-ry- hook y 
Utadi-ag with attentive eye 
Its ejvticvnrf" history , 
TtevtT -Hii-nJc "that hours of play 
Are -your only XiOX.XD.AY, 
And that in a nOUSJj of joy 
lessons serve but io annoy. 
If u> 37ry UOVSJi you fin d 
Children of a gentle mind, 
JiaeA the others pleasing ever— - 
Each the others vexi-nfl* never — 
Daily worjc anal pasti-me daJy 
In their ,or<ier -taJrinrf g al Jy — 
Thfn be very sure tj\at "fckey 

Jfcve a Lfe, of HOLIDAY. 

beliefs, I was able to document care- 
fully Carroll's precise religious faith. I 
am here going to try to demonstrate 
how another book, an earlier chil- 
dren's book, influenced him and per- 
haps helped him create his classics. 

In 1839, Catherine Sinclair's Holi- 
day House was first published. 1 Inter- 
estingly enough, it is not mentioned 
anywhere in Lewis Carroll's letters that 
have come to light or in his surviving 
diary volumes. But he knew the book 
and valued it especially, and in 1861 he 
gave a copy of it as a Christmas gift to 
Alice Liddell and her two sisters. He 
took great pains in composing an ap- 
propriate inscription, an acrostic verse 
that spells out their names (left). 

The poem also toys with the title of 
the book, which, as we see, Carroll in- 
corporated here and there in the text. 
Carroll thought well enough of the 
poem to include it, eight years later, 

in his first published volume of verse, Phantasmagoria 
and Other Poems ( 1 869 ) . 

Carroll certainly selected the book for his special 
young friends with the greatest of care, and when I 
came upon it, I sought the reasons why he selected 
this one over all the other books he might have cho- 
sen for the occasion. 

The author, Catherine Sinclair, was well known 
by the time Carroll read her. She was born in 1800 
in Edinburgh of a prominent Scottish family, and 
wrote two novels at the start of her career, Modern Ac- 
complishment in 1836 and Modern Society the next year. 
Both were well received and claimed wide audiences. 

But something that Sir Walter Scott said to her 
set her on a different course. "In the rising genera- 
tion," he told her, "there could be no poets, wits, or 
orators, because all play of the imagination is now 
carefully discouraged." 2 

Scott was remarking on the religiously tinged, 
Calvinist-oriented, fear-instilling, sin-excoriating liter- 
ature that lined the bookshelves from which parents 
and teachers were supposed to select a child's reading. 
"The books written for children... until the close of 
the eighteenth century," writes Lilian H. Smith, "were 
the natural outcome of a period that shut the door 
on imagination." 3 Well into the nineteenth century, 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge complained in a letter to 
Charles Lamb that "Science has succeeded to poetry 
no less in the little walks of children than with men. 
Is there no possibility of averting this sore evil? Think 
what you would have been now, if instead of being fed 
with tales and old wives' fables in childhood, you had 
been crammed with geography and natural history!" 4 
"Indeed," writes F. Gordon Roe even about the follow- 
ing generation, "the instinct to teach, to improve, to 
warn and rebuke is one of the most striking features 
of a great many books for Victorian children." 5 

Catherine Sinclair took Scott's words to heart, and 
in 1839, she published Holiday House, which quickly 
became a best-seller and remained popular through- 
out the Victorian era and into the twentieth century. 
Sinclair later wrote other children's stories, and pub- 
lished a series of "hieroglyphic" picture-letters (like 
Carroll's rebus letters, where pictures take the place of 
words). In the introduction to Holiday House, we read: 

The minds of young people are now manufac- 
tured like webs of linen, all alike, and nothing 
left to nature. From the hour when children 
can speak, till they come to years of discretion 
or of indiscretion, they are carefully prompted 
what to say, and what to think, and what to 
look at, and how to feel; while in most school- 
rooms nature has been turned out of doors 
with obloquy, and art has entirely supplanted 
her. ... Every infant is probably born with a 
character as peculiar to himself as the features 

in his countenance, but education, which for- 
merly did too little ... seems now in danger of 
overshooting the mark altogether, by not al- 
lowing the young ideas to exist at all. In this 
age of wonderful mechanical invention, the 
very mind of youth seems in danger of becom- 
ing a machine; and while every effort is used 
to stuff the memory, like a cricket ball, with 
well-known facts and ready-made opinions, no 
room is left for the vigour of natural feeling, 
the glow of natural genius, and the ardour of 
natural enthusiasm. 

Yes, you are quite right, Sinclair here sounds very 
much like that crusader Charles Dickens in Hard Times, 
ranting against facts and mechanized education, pit- 
ting Sissy Jupe against Mr. Thomas Gradgrind. But 
Sinclair is actually writing fifteen years before Dickens 
published Hard Times. 

Sinclair goes on to deplore the books available to 
children in her day. "Books written for young persons 
are generally a mere dry record of facts," she writes, 
"unenlivened by any appeal to the heart, or any ex- 
citement to the fancy." They contain "nothing on the 
habits or ways of thinking, natural and suitable to the 
taste of children; therefore, while such works are de- 
lightful to the parents and teachers who select them, 
the younger community are fed with strong meat in- 
stead of milk, and the reading which might be relax- 
ation from study becomes a study in itself." 

She goes on to say that in Holiday House, she has 
"endeavoured to paint that species of noisy, frolic- 
some, mischievous children, which is now almost ex- 
tinct, wishing to preserve a sort of fabulous remem- 
brance of days long past, when young people were 
like wild horses on the prairies, rather than like well- 
broken hacks on the road; and when, amidst many 
faults and eccentricities, there was still some individu- 
ality of character and feeling allowed to remain." 

Toward the end of her introduction, she adds: 
"Those who wish to find no monument to be remem- 
bered for ever in the world ... will find no monument 
more permanent than the affectionate remembrance 
of any children they have treated with kindness ... 
above all, we never forget those who good-humouredly 
complied with the constantly recurring petition of all 
young people, in every generation and every house — 
'Will you tell me a story?"' 

Imagine Lewis Carroll reading Sinclair's intro- 
duction: how congenial he would find her words! He, 
too, knows the value of story-telling, and when he re- 
calls his days of friendships with the Liddell sisters, he 
remembers "the three eager faces, hungry for news 
of fairy-land ... who would not be said 'nay' to: from 
whose lips 'Tell us a story, please,' had all the stern 
immutability of Fate!" 6 

Carroll echoes Miss Sinclair's very thoughts and 
sentiments when, time and again, lie refers to his 
child friends and "the pure fountain of joy that wells 
up in all child-like hearts." 7 He expands on Miss Sin- 
clair's notions in his well-known pic lace to the fac- 
simile edition of Alice's Adventures under Ground. 

Holiday House is an important hook. John Rowe 
Townsend believes that the "modern lain tale may be 
said to begin with 'Uncle David's Nonsensical Story' 
in ... Holiday House."* Robert Lee Wolff sees the book 
as "a pioneering effort in liveliness and realism," one 
that "stands at the beginning of a new period of de- 
velopment in writing for children. "■' In Brian Doyle's 
words, it "blew through the children's book world of 
the period like a gust of fresh spring air, blowing away 
just a few, at any rate, of the dusty didactic cobwebs," 10 
and, according to another historian, was "the best 
original children's book written up to that time, and 
one of thejolliest and most hilarious of any period." 11 
As I hope to show, it is a significant book not only for 
the history of children's literature, but for Lewis Car- 
roll himself. 

The book consists of a string of loosely connected 
stories at the center of which is the Graham family, the 
grandmother, Lady Harriet, and her three grandchil- 
dren, living together in a large house in Edinburgh, 
with the usual battery of servants upstairs and down- 
stairs. The story centers on the children, two broth- 
ers and a sister, whose mother died when they were 
very young, and whose father, Sir Edward, though still 
alive, has gone off to foreign parts to nurse the grief 
that overcame him when he lost his wife. 

The eldest child, Frank, is a model of deportment 
and behavior, but the younger two, Laura and Harry, 
are the real protagonists of the stories, and they do 
not emulate their elder brother. Where he is devout, 
considerate, generous, and faithful, they are indo- 
lent, careless, inconsiderate, and full of mischief. 

The two naughty children are overseen by 
a dragon of a governess, named — no, not Miss 
Prickett — but Mrs. Crabtree, a stereotype of her 
breed, a monster who whips the children with a cat- 
o'-nine-tails and locks them up in dark rooms and 
cupboards. "She ought to have been a drummer of 
a regiment," the children's uncle says, "she is so fond 
of beating." 

Ah, yes, the children's uncle — not Uncle 
Dodgson (as Carroll was known to his child friends) 
but Uncle David, or more formally Major David Gra- 
ham, Retired, a thoroughly delightful, forgiving, and 
amusing bachelor who understands the children's 
naughty ways and even conspires with them at times 
in mischief-making. But he is something more than a 
friendly, lovable uncle — he is a spinner of tales, fairy 
tales, which he invents on the spur of the moment for 
the children's amusement, exactly as the first Alice 
book would be invented later. 

While a chronology and a linked narrative do 

emerge-, the novel really comprises episodic chaptei s, 
most of which could stand independently outside the 
whole. Virtually all the tales tell of Laura and I larry's 
misbehaving, because, as the author herself writes, 
"In spite of Mrs. Crabtree- s admirable 'system' with 
children, Harry and Laura ... [were] two of the most 
heedless, frolicsome beings in the world." 

We are told, mind you, that "neither of these chil- 
dren intended any harm, for they were only ... lively 
romps, who would not for twenty worlds have told a 
lie, or done a shabby thing, or taken what did not be- 
long to them. They were not greedy either. ... Harry 
was not a cruel boy ... he never lashed his pony, beat 
his dog, pinched his sister, or killed any butterflies...." 
All the same, they were a couple of very mischievous 
children, and, despite Miss Sinclair's judgement, 
some moral censors could easily call them wicked. 

The children's misdemeanors begin with mild 
infractions. When grandmama, Lady Harriet, leaves 
Edinburgh to spend some time away with relatives, 
Laura and Harry are able to scamper about the 
house as never before: they run up and down stairs 
"till the housemaid was quite fatigued with running 
after them." "They jumped upon the fine damask 
sofas in the drawing-room, stirred the fire till it was 
in a blaze, and rushed out on the balcony, upsetting 
one or two geraniums and a myrtle. They spilled Lady 
Harriet's perfumes over their handkerchiefs ... they 
tumbled many of the pretty Dresden china figures on 
the floor — they wound up the little French clock till 
it was broken. ... In short," Sinclair tells us, "so much 
mischief has seldom been done in so short time." 
When their grandmother confronts them with their 
misdeeds, the children turn penitent, and penitence 
brings forgiveness. Perhaps the height of mischief oc- 
curs when Lady Harriet takes Laura with her to visit 
relatives at Holiday House. While there, Laura, heed- 
less as ever, gets into numerous scrapes. But, again, 
kind relatives come to her rescue. 

Catherine Sinclair's prose is what we might ex- 
pect of a good writer of her time. It is lucid, smooth, 
detailed; she is a master at cataloguing proper Victo- 
rian external detail and internal emotional responses, 
at revealing the conventional feelings that fill her 
characters' hearts. But her depiction of children, in 
spite of her protest against the bulk of children's lit- 
erature of the day, is not altogether immune from the 
conventional attitudes and practices of the time. She 
falls into picturing children in the eighteenth-century 
mold, simply as mini-adults. They dress in adult cloth- 
ing of a smaller size, they learn adult manners, and 
they speak like adults. 

When a friend of the family takes Harry and 
Laura out and decides that they will go to the races, 
young Laura exclaims: "Oh how enchanting! I never 
saw a race-course in my life!" and Harry chimes in: 


"Hurra! ... what a delightful surprise! Oh! I am so 
dreadfully happy!" They certainly don't sound like 
any children we know today. 

Making children talk like adults was a pattern that 
endured well into the Victorian times. Even Lewis Car- 
roll's Alice does not really talk like a child, not even 
like a provocative child; she, too, talks like an adult. 

One wonders whether Miss Sinclair has a hidden 
agenda. Is she trying to do more than simply hold a 
mirror up to nature? Can she intend these stories to 
be used as instructional manuals for parents and for 
young readers? Is she telling her readers that, mis- 
chief apart, this is the way children should strive to 
behave, this is the proper way to think, feel, and act? 
Could Lewis Carroll and his sisters and brothers as 
children, and the Liddell children as well, have taken 
Harry and Laura as models and fashioned themselves 
after them? 

Whether or not that is the case, we find in Miss 
Sinclair's stories a number of elements that relate to 
Lewis Carroll, his life, his work, and his relationship 
with the Liddells. Most of these elements are evident 
when we look at Uncle David and his manner of deal- 
ing with the two naughty children. Perhaps it's best to 
let Uncle David speak for himself. 

"Looking very sly one morning," Uncle David 
asks: "Have you heard all the new rules that Mrs. 
Crabtree has made [for you]?" The youngsters have 
not, and naturally ask what they are. 

"In the first place," Uncle David tells Laura, "you 
are positively not to tear and destroy above three 
frocks a-day"; secondly, he tells the two that they must 
never get into a passion, unless they are angry; thirdly, 
when either takes any medicine, making a wry face 
will not do, except when the taste is bad; fourthly, 
they must never speak ill of Mrs. Crabtree herself 
till she is out of the room; and fifthly they are not to 
jump out of the windows, as long as they can get out 
at the door. 

"Yes," Laura interrupts, laughing, "and sixthly, 
when Uncle David is joking, we are not to be fright- 
ened by anything he says!" 

"Seventhly, when next you spill grandmama's 
bottle of ink, 'Harry must drink up every drop.'" 

"Very well! He may swallow a sheet of blotting- 
paper afterwards, to put away the taste." 

Uncle David is not all fun and games. From time 
to time we find him trying to educate his nephews 
and niece. "Now show me...," he says one morning, 
"how do you advance three steps backwards?" 

"That is quite impossible," says Frank, "unless you 
turn into a crab." 

"Tell me, then, which is the principal town in Caf- 

"Is there any town there? I do not recollect it." ... 

"I am quite ashamed of your ignorance. Now, let 
us try a little arithmetic! Open the door of your un- 

derstanding and tell me, when wheat is six shillings a 
bushel, what is the price of a penny loaf? Take your 
slate and calculate that." 

"Yes, Uncle David, if you find out, when goose- 
berries are two shillings a pint, what is the price of a 
three-penny tart." 

On one occasion, after the children have re- 
turned from a splendid visit to Holiday House, they 
plunge into their studies and seem to be behaving. 
Uncle David notices their compliance: "You will be 
taken ill of the multiplication table some day, and 
confined to bed with a violent fit of geography! Pray 
take care of yourselves," he advises, "and do not de- 
vour above three books at once," adding, "Here is an 
invitation that [has arrived, but] I suppose you are 
both too busy to accept, so perhaps I might as well 
send an apology; eh, Harry!" 

The lesson books are instantly dropped and ex- 
citement takes over. "Perhaps it is an invitation to 
spend a month with Dr. Lexicon," Uncle David sug- 
gests. "What would you say to that! They breakfast 
upon Latin grammars at [that] school, and have a 
dish of real French verbs, smothered in onions, for 
dinner every day." 12 

The real Lewis Carroll has a lot in common with 
the fictional Uncle David. Winifred Holiday, the 
daughter of the artist Henry Holiday (who illustrated 
The Hunting of the Snark), recalled how Carroll, when 
he stayed with the Holidays, would tell her "strange 
impromptu stories as I sat on his knee." Much later, 
Alice Liddell, then an old woman made world-famous 
by the Alice books, recorded some of her memories 
of Lewis Carroll. In summer, Carroll took the girls 
on river picnics, but in bad weather, the sisters went 
across the college quad to visit Lewis Carroll in his 
rooms. "When we got there," Alice wrote, "we used 
to sit on the big sofa on each side of him, while he 
told us stories, illustrating them by pencil or ink draw- 
ings as he went along. . . . He seemed to have an end- 
less store of these fantastical tales, which he made up 
as he told them, drawing busily on a large sheet of 
paper all the time. ... Occasionally he pretended to 
fall asleep, to our great dismay. Sometimes he said 
'That is all till next time,' only to resume on being 
told that it was already next time." 

At least two other stories in Miss Sinclair's book 
echo later in Lewis Carroll's life and work. In one of 
these, Uncle David takes the children to see some 
magnificent illuminations, staged in celebration 
of a great British victory, possibly Waterloo, just as 
Lewis Carroll would later, in 1863, take Alice Liddell 
through Oxford to see the illuminations marking the 
Prince of Wales's marriage to Princess Alexandra. 

The second incident begins indoors. "Now, at 
this moment, I have nothing particular to do," says 
Uncle David, "therefore I shall tell you a wonderful 
story, children, about liking to be idle or busy, and 
you must find out the moral for yourselves." 

"'A story! a story!' cry Harry and Laura, in an ec- 
stasy of delight; and as they each have a knee of Uncle 
David's which belonged to themselves, they scramble 
into their places, exclaiming, 'Now let it be all about 
very bad boys, and giants, and fairies!'" 

Uncle David obliges, and what follows is his non- 
sense tale about giants and fairies, and a naughty boy 
called Master No-book, who is visited by two fairies, 
Fairy Do-nothing and Fairy Teach-all, each inviting 
him to come away to her own palace, the Castle Need- 
less or the Palace of Knowledge. Well, we know which 
direction the lazy Master No-book chooses. Not far 
from Castle Needless lives a huge giant called Snap- 
'em-up, who is so tall that he must climb up a ladder 
to comb his own hair. "Every morning ... [Snap'em- 
up] walked round the world before breakfast, for an 
appetite; after which he made tea in a large lake, used 
the sea as slopbasin and boiled his kettle on Mount 
Vesuvius. He lived in great style," Uncle David tells 
the children, eating elephants roasted whole, stewed 
lions and the like, "but his greatest favourite consists 
of little boys, as fat as possible, fried in crumbs of 
bread, with plenty of pepper and salt." 

Snap-'em-up spies Master No-book lounging in 
the Fairy Do-nothing's garden, snaps him up, takes 
him back to his own castle, hangs him up on a butch- 
er's hook in his larder, and feeds him large chunks of 
suet to fatten him up even more. 

While Master No-book is a-fattening, Snap-'em- 
up's enormous cook, who wields huge, worrying 
knives, tells the giant that she needs more fat young 
boys to prepare his dinner, and Snap-'em-up goes 
off to the Fairy Teach-all's garden to try to replenish 
his supply. But the boys there are clever: they defend 
themselves nobly, and the Fairy Teach-all brandishes 
her own carving-knife and stabs the giant in the heart. 
Then she loses no time in liberating Master No-book, 
who turns a new leaf and leads a model life. The story 
ends with a good deal of moralizing by Uncle David 
and Lady Harriet and many wonderful resolves made 
by Harry and Laura. 

Miss Sinclair and Lewis Carroll actually part com- 
pany here. Carroll would simply not moralize; in fact, 
he would debunk the habit that parents and teachers 
have of pointing to the moral inherent in all actions. 
He even mocks educational systems, acceptable social 
behavior, certain ceremonies, speech patterns, and so- 
called "correct" attitudes. His Alice books are much 
more unconventional than Miss Sinclair's book. They 
offer fun and laughter rather than instruction and 
moral lessons. 

But the fantasy, the nonsense, the laughter, and 
the sheer delight in life and in absurd situations, 
and in story-telling, belong to both Miss Sinclair and 
Lewis Carroll. 

We can easily imagine Lewis Carroll, boy and 
man, reading Holiday House, being impressed by it, 

and seeing in it much that he would applaud and 
want to make part of himself. The similarities be- 
tween what Uncle David was and what Lewis Carroll 
later became are evident. Carroll and Uncle David 
were of a similar mould, and, very likely Carroll, hav- 
ing encountered Uncle David when he himself was 
growing up, warmed to him and consciously or un- 
consciously followed the same path in becoming a 
friend to children. He remembered the story well, 
and it influenced him in more ways than one. The 
Snark, although a much more mysterious figure than 
the giant Snap-'em-up, "frequently breakfasts at five 
o'clock tea, and dines on the following day." And be- 
cause Lewis Carroll so obviously approved of Holiday 
House, he went to the trouble of inscribing it with this 
carefully wrought acrostic verse and gave it, seven 
months before he conceived his first Alice tale, to the 
three child friends he most cherished. 

Carroll nowhere acknowledges outright the 
influence of Holiday House. But he surely read the 
book and saw its intrinsic worth immediately. Per- 
haps his experience was like that chronicled by Roger 
Lancelyn Green, a much later author of children's 
stories, when he wrote in his famous book Tellers of 
Tales: "After wading through the dark undergrowth of 
insipid verses, dull cautionary tales and heavily laden 
stories of knowledge and unnatural behavior, it is like 
coming out into the clear, bright sunshine to take up 
Holiday House and read of those two pleasantly natu- 
ral and naughty children, Harry and Laura — not to 
mention Uncle David, of the humorous remarks and 
pleasantly nonsensical stories. It is not quite the end 
of the wood, of course, but it is the first sure sign that 
the trees are thinning and that the pleasant meadow- 
land of fancy and amusement is not far ahead." 13 

Green credits Sinclair with initiating "the revolt 
against the old kind of children's book." He credits 
her with writing "the first real story of happy child 
life, and the first real bit of nonsense literature." 14 
Green considers that from "the historical point of 
view ... [Holiday House] is one of the most important 
books in the history of children's literature, for it was 
written with the intention of changing the quality and 
kind of reading supplied for young people, and it was 
so successful that not only did it achieve its purpose 
but it remained in print and was read by children for 
precisely a hundred years." 15 

Lewis Carroll, having taken Sinclair seriously, 
went on to create books that children could truly 
enjoy, books that liberated them as no one had lib- 
erated them before. It is that liberation that Sinclair 
and Carroll have in common, and to these two au- 
thors we owe the spirit of nonsense, fun, and laughter 
that was suppressed before them and that we take for 
granted today. 

Leslie McGrath of the Osborne Collection of Children's 

Literature, part of the Toronto Public Library system, 

briefly discussed Holiday House as an influence on Carroll 

in a talk to the LCSNA and LCSCanada during our fall 

1999 meeting {KI. 62:4) - Ed. 

Catherine Sinclair, Holiday House, in Maslenvorks of 

Children's Literature, Part I, Vol. 5, 1837-1900, "The 

Victorian Age," edited by Robert Lee Wolff (New York: 

Stonehill, 1984). 

Lilian H. Smith, The Unreluctant Years (Chicago: American 

Library Association, 1953; New York: Penguin, 1976), 25. 


Frederic Gordon Roe, The Victorian Child (London: 

Phoenix House, 1959), 91. 

Lewis Carroll, "'Alice' on the Stage," The Theatre, n.s., 9 

(April 1887), in Lewis Carroll, The Lewis Carroll Picture 

Book (London: T F. Unwin, 1899), 168. 

Preface to Lewis Carroll, The Nursery "Alice, " (London: 

Macmillan, 1890). 

John Rowe Townsend, Written for Children: An Outline of 

English-Language Children's Literature (Boston: Horn Book, 

1974), 93. 

Wolff, Masterworks, 6. 

The Who's Who of Children's Literature, compiled and edited 

by Brian Doyle (London: Evelyn, 1968), 246. 

Ibid., F.J. Harvey Darton. 

Perhaps a reference to "Dr. Syntax," one of the first 

cartoon characters, drawn by Thomas Rowlandson with 

verse by William Combe, published in the first years of 

the nineteenth century. - Ed. 

Roger Lancelyn Green, Tellers of Tales (Leicester, Eng., E. 

Ward, 1946; 1953), 13-14. 

Ibid., 17. 

Roger Lancelyn Green, "The Golden Age of Children's 

Books," in Only Connect: Readings on Children 's Literature, 

edited by Sheila Egoff, G. T Stubbs, and L. F. Ashley 

(New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 3. 

The Butcher and the Beaver © 2006 by Peggy A. Guest. See page 11. 

Amman in mm y®rk 



Andreio Sellon 

On Friday, November 3, our Maxine Schaefer read- 
ing, which was most enthusiastically received by the 
children, was performed at the Ralph and Ricky Lau- 
ren Center for the Performing Arts within the Lex- 
ington School for the Deaf. The space was a beautiful 
state-of-the-art theater custom designed so that deaf 
or hard-of-hearing children could perform all duties 
onstage and off, including lighting and stage manage- 
ment. The two interpreters signing along with us were 
excellent, and very helpful for the lively question-and- 
answer session, as was organizer Ellie Schaefer-Salins. 
Some of the finer points of the wordplay may have 
been lost in translation, but the visual and conceptual 
humor came through loud and clear, with the chil- 
dren giggling appreciatively. The school hosted a little 
reception for us afterward, with juice and donuts, dur- 
ing which the principal came up to me and said, "You 
know, in another two years we'll have a whole new set 
of kids — I hope you'll come back!" As I was standing 
sipping my juice, with the kids all around us on the 
floor happily enjoying their refreshments, I felt some- 
one tug on my pant leg. I looked down, and a little 
boy beamed up at me and signed something. A nearby 
teacher translated: "Thank you! You were all great!" 
That speaks volumes to this program's impact. 


August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

It was, I learned later that day, because of Local Law 
No. 11 that Philip Johnson's magnificent red multi- 
story building on the southeast corner of Washington 
Square, the Edward Holmes Bobst Library of New 
York University, wore its steel scaffolding like a frayed 
petticoat on a bright sunny morning this past Novem- 
ber 4, when the Lewis Carroll Society of North Amer- 
ica assembled there for its fall 2006 meeting. Law 1 1 
states that every New York building of a certain height, 
and there are quite a lot of them, must every five years 
have its facade examined to ensure that no stones, 
concrete slabs, etc., are in danger of crashing to the 
sidewalk and smashing citizens Humpty-Dumpty fash- 
ion. The Bobst itself houses a number of separate 
NYU libraries, including the Tamiment Library and 
Robert Wagner Labor Archives (really a splendid col- 
lection of left-wing literature from the early decades 
of the twentieth century, much of which was written 
within walking distance), but it was to Fales Library 
that we gladly returned for our ninth NYU meeting, 
the first one having been held here in 1979. 

On entering the Bobst, one crosses its black and 
white Escheresque floor to elevators that bring one up 
to the Fales Library on the third of its eleven floors, 
where, as usual, Marvin Taylor, director of the Fales, 
was waiting for us, together with the society's outgo- 
ing president, Alan Tannenbaum; secretary, Cindy 
Watter; and a number of members and guests. At the 
rear of the room, tables had been set up with copies 
of the Knight Letter, copies of our UK sister society's 
journal, The Carrollian, and information about the 
LCSNA. On the other side of the room, there were 
some 20 or 30 Carroll books that member Earl Abbe 
generously offered to anyone who wished to have 
them (Earl and his wife Betsy had moved from the 
East Coast to California last year and had asked David 
Schaefer to give their Carroll books, or at least most 
of them, to members of our Society), and Tania Iva- 
novskaia was offering for sale, very reasonably priced, 
her new full-color illustrated edition of "The Mad 
Gardener's Song," and some of her other books and 

Peter Glassman 

Contrary to custom, but with a certain fitting 
looking-glass reversal, President Tannenbaum began 
the meeting not with the usual expression of thanks 
to our host, but rather with the briefest outline of the 
day's schedule, and then straightaway introduced our 
first speaker, Peter Glassman, founder of the Books 
of Wonder bookstore, who had another pressing en- 
gagement that morning. 

Peter, who to the children who visit his shop must 
seem like a jolly elf from one of the many illustrated 
books on his shelves, recounted his own fascination 
with the Alice books, how he found a career in books, 
and, most importantly for us, how he came to publish 
the splendid Books of Wonder editions of Wonderland 
and Looking-Glass. 

In 1992, he acquired the beautiful set of prints, 
newly made from the original boxwood woodblocks 
carved by the Dalziel brothers — his copy in its red 
box sat beside him today on a little table perhaps 
about the height of the table at the bottom of the 
rabbit hole. Glassman was so taken with the quality 
of the prints that he decided he wanted to publish 
an affordable children's edition making use of them. 
Macmillan at first showed interest but then began to 
procrastinate; so, finally, after conferring with his at- 
torney, Peter decided to publish his envisioned edi- 
tion with William Morrow. A firm called Gamma 1, 
in those days before digital scanning, did the photo- 
graphic reproduction work. The type was set insofar 
as possible to match the original. 

All-around gilt edges were added, something of 
a rarity in reprints, and the cover was designed by 
Caldecott-winning artist Paul Zelinsky. The book was, 
and continues to be, very successful, with over 50,000 
having been printed — Peter would not say what the 
exact number is — and it is now past its thirteenth 
printing. A year later, he published, again with Mor- 
row, Through the Looking-Glass, cleverly adding silver 
edges as a distinctive note. More than a thousand 

copies of the Books of Wonder editions of the Alice 
books have been distributed to American elementary 
school children through the Maxine Schaefer Chil- 
dren's Outreach Program of our Society — a point 
that one person noted should be made to the presi- 
dent of HarperCollins, which has taken over Mor- 
row. Asked whether he planned to publish a Books of 
Wonder Snark, given the upcoming 130th anniversary 
of its publication, Peter said he thought that work 
was more of an adult book and really did not fit in 
his publishing program, which contains a number of 
other children's classics in addition to the Alice books. 
For Sylvie and Bruno he was less than enthusiastic. 

The president next attended to some annual 
meeting business, the first of which was to request the 
report of the Nominating Committee, who presented 
the following slate: president, Andrew Sellon; vice 
president, Cindy Watter; treasurer, Francine Abeles; 
and secretary, Clare Imholtz. Neither seeing nor hear- 
ing any further nominations from the floor, the presi- 
dent called for a vote and the slate was unanimously 
elected. President Tannenbaum then thanked Cindy 
Watter for her long tenure as secretary and congratu- 
lated her on her election to the vice presidency. He 
recognized Fran Abeles' long and careful stewardship 
of our finances and welcomed the fact, as do all our 
members, that she is willing to continue in that im- 
portant office. He next congratulated Clare Imholtz, 
long-suffering spouse of this writer, for being willing 
to take on the duties of secretary, and he wished An- 
drew Sellon all the best as the incoming president. 
The terms of office are two years. 

Having taken care of the nominations and elec- 
tions without a flurry of chads, Alan noted that the 
Society's publications program, under the diligent 
direction of Fran Abeles, continues to move forward. 
Negotiations with the Fales Library, which are just 
now concluding, will allow us to publish a new edi- 
tion of Carroll's La Guida di Bragia with illustrations 
by Jonathan Dixon. Elizabeth Sewell's posthumous 
manuscript Lewis Carroll: Voices from France, carefully 
edited by Clare Imholtz, will be the next free publi- 
cation distributed to our membership. Dr. Sewell, a 
sui generis original thinker, was an early member of 
our Society and the author of a seminal study of Car- 
roll, The Field of Nonsense (1952), among many other 
works. Finally, many members had already received 
their free copy of Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter 
Writing, which is being distributed courtesy of Charlie 
Lovett and the LCSNA. We are considering holding 
our Spring 2007 meeting in Norman, Oklahoma, to 
honor Martin Gardner. Finally, our membership now 
numbers 388, up by almost 50 new members since 
our last meeting. 

Business matters having been attended to, Alan 
Tannenbaum introduced our host, Marvin Taylor, li- 
brarian of the Fales Library. Welcoming us on behalf 


Adam Gopnik 

of New York University, Dean of Libraries, Carol Man- 
del, and himself, Marvin said once again how glad he 
was to see us meeting again at the Fales, the home to 
the Alfred C. Berol Lewis Carroll Collection and the 
repository of the Society's archives. 1 

Marvin welcomed the fact that the Fales and the 
Society are hoping to memorialize their close rela- 
tionship by adding to our printed communications 
and our publications, electronic or tangible, the rec- 
ognition of our affiliation with the Fales Library. After 
Marvin's warmly conveyed and cordially received re- 
marks, we strolled about two blocks to a restaurant 
called Ennio & Michael's for a delicious lunch and 
the conversation that has become such a pleasant 
part of our Society's social fabric. 

The afternoon session began with New Yorker 
magazine author Adam Gopnik's brilliant talk on 
Martin Gardner and his introduction to Gardner's 
new Annotated Snark. Like many of us, including our 
first speaker, he recalled listening to Cyril Ritchard's 
wonderful recordings of the Alice books, and he 
recounted his later infatuation with the Snark. Mr. 
Gopnik began writing for the New Yorker in 1986. One 
of the earliest pieces he wrote for the magazine, "The 
Blue Door," has a Carrollian overtone, if not theme. 
From 1995 to 2000, he wrote the New Yorkers "Paris 
Journal" essays, which have been collected and re- 
published in his book Paris to the Moon. Among his 
many other accomplishments, Gopnik has written a 
children's book, The King in the Window, published 
by Hyperion last year, and a collection of essays, 
Through the Children's Gate. Although at the beginning 
of his talk Gopnik laid out the three discrete themes 
he wished to discuss, the boundaries between them 
quickly became rather porous: (1) how he came to 
write the introduction to Gardner's new Snark, (2) 
Martin Gardner, the writer Gopnik has come to know, 
and (3) what The Hunting of the Snark means for us 

One can read the Alice books, certainly at a bask 
level, Gopnik believes, without really needing to con- 
sult Gardner's splendid annotated editions of those 
works. With the Snark, however, annotations are al- 
most essential. As Gopnik put it in his introductory 
essay and rephrased for us, "Gardner's annotations 
don't attempt to show us what the book 'really' meant 
to its original readers, much less what it really means 
now — they show instead, and winningly, all that it can 
mean to one remarkably attentive reader." The Snark 
is a surrealistic work, bouncing back and forth like 
the best of Max Ernst or Louis Aragon. Alice herself 
is the embodiment of common sense, but that char- 
acteristic is nowhere to be found in the Snark, not 
even in the Baker, who is, in the end, the victim of 
the Boojum, just as he had feared. The Bellman, the 
leader of the expedition, is incompetent. His only 
anodyne to impending doom is threefold repetition: 
what he says three times is true. Gardner does explain 
secondary details, but he never speaks only to those 
details and never loses sight of the main theme that 
the many details support. "A tracery of existential 
dread," Gopnik said, runs "just visible beneath the 
poem's surface." As an example, the matter of the 
Tichbourne Claimant speaks to the Victorian sense 
of delirium, even though it may not have been a con- 
scious reference on Carroll's part. And shifting to the 
annotator, Gopnik noted that Martin Gardner, that 
most modest of men, believes in rationality: one of 
his best books is titled The Whys of a Philosophical Scriv- 
ener — not to mention more than forty other books on 
mathematics and science — and yet he is no enemy of 
the idea, the reality, of the irrational. In this, Gardner 
deeply resembles Carroll: both see the absurdity and 
still stand on the side of reason. 

Tolkien once said he was an enemy of allegory but 
a friend of applicability, an abhorrence of allegory hav- 
ing been a major cause of his break with C. S. Lewis. 
We find ourselves in Carrollian applicability when 
we hear the line "what I tell you three times is true." 
Carroll lived through one of the great revolutions 
in consciousness, the birth of modern science and 
modern philosophy. Repetition in the manner of the 
Bellman was no longer sufficient to chart the course, 
any course. Carroll has great sympathy for the White 
Knight, who constantly has clever if not at all useful 
ideas — he perhaps represents Carroll's emotional 
critique of pure reason. 

In his first Annotated Snark, Gardner had "ap- 
plied" the Boojum to the then current and all-too- 
real threat of nuclear mutual destruction during 
the Cuban missile crisis. In a brief question period, 
Gopnik responded to some questions and observa- 
tions on the differences between G. K. Chesterton 
and Dodgson. Chesterton's struggle with rational- 
ity in face of irrationality resulted in his subsequent 
embrace of the tenets of Catholicism in a search for 

absolute certainty, whereas Dodgson rejected Ches- 
terton's either/or dichotomy. Dodgson was too good 
a logician and too sane a thinker to fall prey to that. 
In closing, Gopnik wondered why Gardner seems so 
antithetic to Karl Popper — sadly, the only man who 
could answer that was not there. 

Martin Gardner's longtime editor — at least, if 
twenty years qualifies as a long time in the life of a man 
in his early nineties — at W. W. Norton and Company, 
Robert Weil, added a few thoughts on the author who 
has taken him from Alice to Oz to Silvanus Thompson 
on calculus and back to Carroll again in the Snark. He 
shared his personal appreciation of Martin and then 
read the following message from him: 

I am, of course, delighted, deeply honored, in- 
deed overwhelmed by the reception of The An- 
notated Snark, especially Adam Gopnik's won- 
derful introduction and by his appearance 
here. I think the slowly growing appreciation 
of Lewis Carroll's bizarre ballad that pretends 
to be nothing more than sheer nonsense, 
should remind us all how difficult it is for crit- 
ics to predict a poem's survival value. Contem- 
porary reviews were harsh hatchet jobs. 

If there is an afterlife, you can imagine 
Carroll's surprise and pleasure, and how mys- 
tified and chagrined would be poor Robert 
Southey. A poet laureate of England, more 
admired than Coleridge, Southey is remem- 
bered today mainly because Carroll, in his first 
Alice book, parodied one of Southey's didac- 
tic poems. And consider how saddened must 
be the men praised in Samuel Johnson's Lives 
of the Poets — bards whose very names are no 
longer recognizable. 

Meanwhile, poets whose scribblings were 
almost invisible — Emily Dickinson, for one — 
were destined for immortality. An episode in 
one of Mark Twain's short novels tells of a cel- 
ebration in heaven when the world's greatest 
poet arrives. 2 On Earth he was totally unrecog- 
nized because he had never published a line! 

Alan Tannenbaum, after a short break, 42 sec- 
onds to be precise, introduced Clare Imholtz, who is, 
with the help of co-author Byron W. Sewell, writing a 
new bibliography of Sylvie and Bruno. 

Clare began with the wish that Byron could have 
been there to join her in the presentation of highlights 
from their work. Their goal is to compile a compre- 
hensive and exhaustive bibliography of the S&B books, 
nothing less. She said that bibliography, like collecting, 
is an insidious, addictive activity that can take over your 
life. Once you start you can't stop. Every new find is a 
thrill. But it's a cheap way to collect — you just collect 
references! But if it's cheaper than collecting, it's also 
a lot more work. For years, her brain was surfeited with 
Sylvie and Bruno: She dreamt about the books and the 

bibliography all the time. She even invented new edi- 
tions in her dreams, and seriously considered adding 
these to the bibliography, though, in the end, she did 

She briefly discussed three key parts of the Bib- 
liography that were not written by Byron or her. First, 
there is a preface by someone named August Imholtz. 
Second, Anne Clark Amor wrote a brilliant 30-page 
essay, which stands as an introduction and is entitled 
"A New Kind of Novel: The Sylvie and Bruno Books." 
And third, Edward Wakeling very kindly permitted 
Clare and Byron to include a list of presentation cop- 
ies, all with their current locations. 

The Bibliography itself begins, of course, with "Bru- 
no's Revenge," the story that Lewis Carroll published 
in Aunt Judy s Magazine'm 1867, and that was reprinted 
ten years later in the U.S. magazine St. Nicholas. (She 
showed a picture of St. Nicholas magazine, December 
1877, as she did with almost all the editions she dis- 
cussed.) This story was the germ from which the nov- 
els grew. The magazines included an illustration of 
the two fairy children by F. Gilbert, which Dodgson 
disliked, commenting that they looked "something 
like a blacksmith and a ballet-dancer." (Nina Demu- 
rova's translation of "Bruno's Revenge" was recently 
reprinted in 2003, in Kukumber, z. Russian children's 

Next came the standard editions of the books. 
The first edition of S&BC should include a single- 
sheet advertisement laid in recalling the 60th-thou- 
sand printing of Through the Looking-Glass. This ad- 
vertisement was once thought to be rare, but in fact 
seems to be fairly common. 

The two books were printed, at Dodgson 's insis- 
tence, in huge editions, twenty thousand copies each, 
and they stayed in print a long time, S&B until about 
1905 and S&BC until about 1942. This is why they 
are still fairly inexpensive to purchase, and it also ex- 
plains why you can still find so many S&BC dust jack- 
ets today. 

There were several early variant editions of both 
books, including specially bound copies for special 
recipients, such as Isa Bowman and Mrs. Furniss. 
Some of the rarest editions are those that Carroll had 
bound in very plain style to give away to Mechanics 
Institutes. Today, only eight known copies of each of 
the Mechanics Editions have been located. 

In 1934, Morris Parrish published a photograph 
of the S&Bs in his collection. Parrish's photograph 
depicted a two-volume trial edition, an uncut large 
paper copy, a copy with the medallions on the covers 
inverted, a very weird copy with bright green-yellow 
edges that clash horribly with the standard red bind- 
ing, and others. 

The bibliography also lists the early American 
editions, which were published in 1890 and 1895, re- 
spectively, in three colors: red, green, and blue. All 

three colors are considered first editions, as there 
is no known precedence among them. And, jump- 
ing ahead some 95 years, Clare showed the Mercury 
House edition, which was issued in 1991, with scratch- 
board designs by Renee Flower. 

The bibliography includes editions in French, 
German, Japanese, Romanian, Croatian, Polish, 
Spanish, and Portuguese. From her account of those 
editions, again accompanied by illustrations, she 
moved on to The Story ofSylvie and Bruno, an abridged 
edition prepared after Carroll's death by his brother 
Edwin. Edwin kept all the "fairy" parts of the story but 
deleted the adult elements, and by all accounts, it's 
worse than the original. It was printed first in 1904 
and then reissued numerous times. 

She quickly covered excerpts from the books, es- 
pecially the wonderful "Mad Gardener's Song" (e.g., 
Tania Ianovskaia's edition) and the "Pig Tale" (e.g., 
the Lubin version). 

Finally, Clare discussed the critical reception of 
the books. Chesterton, for example, thought that 
Carroll's comments on social justice in Sylvie and 
Bruno were "more worthy of a feeble curate in a farce 
than of a Christian priest teaching in a historic seat 
of learning." 

French critics in general, however, have been 
more appreciative of Sylvie and Bruno than the Eng- 
lish. Gilles Deleuze called it Carroll's third master- 
piece, while our contemporary Pascale Renaud has 
a brilliant article on the composition of S&B on the 
website In spite of 
the French academics, most of the verdicts Clare cited 
were negative comments, but she concluded with 
Denis Crutch's 1975 observation that despite faults, 
they are "the book of his whole mind for the twenty 
years he was writing it," her favorite comment. At this 
point in the afternoon's events, Alan Tannenbaum 
turned over the meeting — alas, we have no gavel — to 
Andrew Sellon, who introduced our final speaker, art- 
ist Peggy Guest. Andrew had met her when she was 
showing her whimsical plant paintings at the Brook- 
lyn Botanic Garden, and was so taken with her inter- 
pretations that he introduced himself, and, before 
she traveled back to her home state of Missouri, gave 
her a copy of the Snark. She read the book several 
times through while her husband drove them home. 
The illustrations she showed us were the results of 
her fascination with Carroll's "bizarre ballad." Before 
showing us the illustrations, however, Peggy gave a 
very well organized summary of her approach to il- 
lustrating a text. Illustrating the Snark, if one recalls 
Adam Gopnik's comments on Martin Gardner's ap- 
plication of the Snark to nuclear annihilation, may 
not really have seemed all that strange to Peggy, as 
she had spent her earlier career as a top-secret Army 
and Air Force artist on classified weapons and the 
scenarios of the aftermath of their deployment. In 

Peggy A. Guest 

approaching the task of illustrating, she observes the 
following commandments: 

Thou shalt not overpower the author's words. 

Thou shalt not confuse the reader. 

Thou shalt know the story, but not over-tell it 
(plant the seed, but don't grow the crop). 

Thou shalt be consistent (e.g., the scale of 
characters relative to one another should not 
change, what they are wearing should not 
change unless the text calls for it, etc.). 

With the help of her actual sketches, she 
demonstrated how she understood and depicted 
each character, starting with the Baker. First, we saw 
the preliminary sketch of the Baker with a telltale 
distance in his eyes, in a rough layout with the text 
of the page. She then moved through other sketches, 
progressively more finely delineated, until the final 
one, with a splendid bridecake in hand and the tall 
ship in the background. 

Her presentation gave us a fascinating look at 
how an artist understands, thinks, plots, and creates. 
She graciously signed posters for many of us just as 
she had signed the bookmarks with one of her illustra- 
tions the night before our meeting, so Andrew could 
give one to everyone who completed a membership 
survey (more about that elsewhere on p. 25). Peggy's 
fine Snark illustrations may be seen, or as they say in 
the digital image world, "viewed," at www.peggyguest. 
com/illustration. html and page 6 of this issue. 

We took our leave of the Fales until next time, 
out into the twilight of Washington Square. 

1 The finding aid for those holdings can be found at 
http://dlib.nyu. edu:8083/falesead/servlet/SaxonServlet 

2 Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven, 1909. 


They4//ce Drawings: Copies, Forgeries, andTenniers Originals 


r he Alice drawings are so greatly prized that 
more of them turn up in libraries and in pri- 
vate collections than Tenniel ever thought of 
producing. The authentic ones, all pencil drawings, 
present a logical progression from design to block. 

Before proceeding, we must lay to rest certain 
speculations about Tenniel's drawings on wood. The 
evidence that Tenniel drew some four thousand of 
his illustrations and cartoons on the wood himself 
is so available — in his statements, and in those of his 
colleagues and engravers — that it is inexplicable that 
anyone might have doubted this. It would have been 
out of the question for Tenniel, or for an artist of like 
stature, to allow an engraver to draw or to alter his de- 
signs upon the wood. As the illustrator and Punch art- 
ist George du Maurier wrote with regard to facsimile 
engraving, "It is more than his [the engraver's] place 
is worth to add a line of his own, or leave out one 
of the artist's." To the Dalziels, engravers of the Alice 
blocks, Tenniel's pencil drawings on wood "were fine 
examples of his varied powers of design and delicate 
manipulation" such as gave them "great pleasure in 
the rendering." 1 


Leading to the finished drawings on the block were, 
first, the preliminary sketches on paper, ranging from 
rough outline studies — sometimes for selected parts 
of the design — to shaded and almost-finished work 
that might be heightened with touches of ink and 
Chinese white. Occasionally the same page will show, 
besides the entire design, some smaller studies — a 
hand holding a scepter, a crown, a head, or an entire 
figure. Such details alone should make it clear that 
these drawings belong to the planning stage. 

Next, by means of tracings, purely in outline as 
there would have been no requirement for shading 
at this stage, Tenniel worked out small modifications 
to his designs — say, in the position of a limb, or in an 
article of dress. For example, in the tracings that were 
formerly bound into the Harold Hartley Looking-Glass 
the erasures show that the Tweedles were originally 
dressed as adults, and that Tenniel had experimented 
with the positioning of Tweedledee's feet in the draw- 
ing "Discovery of rattle," so that one can still see traces 
of three feet protruding from under the umbrella. It 

was needful to decide on these changes before going 
onto the block since erasures on the prepared sur- 
face itself would have been difficult if not impossible. 

Also bound into the Hartley Looking-Glass were 
three value studies for those scenes where Tenniel 
wished to work out his areas of dark and light before- 
hand. These are versions on textured paper in which 
the darks are roughly shaded in. 2 

Finally, there were the finished drawings on 
bristol board. With these Tenniel would have settled 
on how the design would appear in the book. They 
would have served as guides for his drawing on the 
block as well. Similarly, he had made a set of finished 
designs in the sketch copy of his 1861 Lalla Rookh and 
had written on the title page, "The sketches are the 
original designs preparatory to making the finished 
drawings on the wood blocks by me." The drawings 
on bristol board were part of the process and not, as 
has been suggested, post-publication commissioned 
works. 3 Unlike his weekly Punch cartoons, where time 
restrictions necessitated going directly from the pre- 
paratory sketch to the block, Tenniel's book designs 
allowed for these extra steps. 

The "post-publication" designation is based on 
the oft-repeated fallacy that Tenniel allowed the Dal- 
ziels to both draw and modify his designs upon the 
wood — surely a strange speculation to be made about 
the most meticulous of Victorian artists. 4 If one sub- 
scribes to this belief, it then follows that for Tenniel 
to have produced drawings that match the published 
engravings, he must have copied them. 

At one time there would have been yet another 
type of drawing — the outline tracing for transferring 
the design to the block. Generally, the procedure in- 
volves placing the tracing-paper drawing face down 
on the applicable surface and transferring the lines 
of graphite by pressure. I am not certain whether 
or not this method, applied to a wood block, would 
have disturbed the preparation (bath brick and flake 
white or some similar mixture) that had been rubbed 
over the slippery surface to provide sufficient bite for 
the artist's pencil. Tenniel may have employed some 
variation of the method used by the illustrator Hablot 
K. Browne (pseudonym "Phiz"), which required cov- 
ering the side of the paper in contact with the block 
with red chalk and going over the main outlines of 


a reversed drawing, placed face up over it, with a 
blunt point. 5 Either method would leave on the block 
a faint image of the design in reverse. Over this the 
artist would draw his picture with a hard lead, put- 
ting in all the lines (including the lines of shading, 
or hatching), and the block would then be engraved. 
Once the drawing was done, there would have been 
no reason to keep the transfer outlines — even had 
they not been damaged, both by the process and by 
the folding or taping of the paper around the block 
to prevent it from shifting. 


One must distinguish between the Alice copies that 
were made for instruction and amusement, and those 
made with the intent to deceive. I believe that all the 
pen and ink drawings belong in the first category. Al- 
though Tenniel drew beautifully in pen and ink, he 
did this rarely — mainly for the Punch almanac and 
Pocket Book designs and the occasional gift drawing. A 
forger would more likely use pencil. 

Amateurs seem to have favored ink. The copy 
pasted into the 1866 Wonderland at the Durning Law- 
rence Library in London is an example; however, 
the faded inscription on the book's half title, "Maj 
Colville Oct 27 / 66," is undoubtedly in Tenniel's 
writing. Similarly, Tenniel's inscription, alone and 
with no added drawing, is found on presentation cop- 
ies of both a Wonderland and a Looking-Glass, listed in 
a Sotheby catalogue for 1928. 6 

Reproductions of crude Alice copies have been 
sent to me: a White Rabbit as herald from a book 
dealer and nine drawings (one dated 1880), said to 
have belonged to Tenniel's friend Amy Evans, from 
Christie's. The fact that some of these copies bear 
Tenniel's monogram does not indicate fraudulent 
intent. In the nineteenth century Tenniel's name 
was a household word. His familiar device had iden- 
tified his weekly cartoon in Punch since 1862, when 
he became that paper's chief cartoonist. Its appear- 
ance on a drawing simply showed that it was a copy 
after Tenniel. These well-loved pictures may as easily 
have been copied for pleasure as for instruction. It 
should be remembered that a good deal of Victorian 
entertainment was homegrown. On the other hand, 
the five somewhat better copies found on Wonderland 
page proofs were probably practice pieces done by a 
Dalziel apprentice as they would have served no other 
useful purpose. 7 


Drawings meant to be taken as Tenniel's work are in 
pencil and appear on both the half-title pages of early 
Alice editions and on separate sheets. Some bear in- 
scriptions; the literature mentions eight of these. 8 

The premise that Tenniel, who tended to be im- 
patient with any sort of superfluity, might duplicate 
on the half titles the pictures that were already in 
the books, is intrinsically faulty. Having drawn the 
designs on the block and monitored their engraving 
and printing, he would have had every reason to look 
upon the images in the books as entirely his own. He 
invariably produced new designs in his gift drawings 
for friends, and not copies of his illustrations. The 
fact that at least six of the eight inscribed drawings 
are reversed (the orientation of the other two is un- 
known) should in itself arouse suspicion. Why would 
Tenniel, who, as part of the production process, had 
done his drawings in original and reversed positions 
hundreds of times, and could thus do this easily, vary 
from the direction in which his Alice cuts were known 
to the public? 

Four inscription drawings are reproduced in 
books. These show, by discrepancies in handwriting 
and draftsmanship, that they are not by Tenniel. 9 For 
most viewers, handwriting may be the easiest guide. 
Tenniel's angular script is distinctive and controlled, 
the slanted letters with their heavier downstrokes fol- 
lowing a straight horizontal. There are rarely open 
loops, and there is no rounding of the tops of the n, 
m, or r, or the lower half of the h. In the 270 Tenniel 
letters that I have examined, spanning some sixty 
years of his correspondence, while the slant becomes 
less pronounced and the downstrokes heavier, the 
formation of the letters themselves remains remark- 
ably constant. 

Reproduced on the following page, along with a 
sample of Tenniel's writing of 1877, are two of the 
inscriptions (fig. 1). Another will follow, along with 
its drawing; the fourth is not included, since, except 
for the year, it duplicates the first example. In the first 
inscription the r — topped by a loop that terminates 
in an s-curve — is of a type never used by Tenniel. This 
sort of r betrays a false copy absolutely. The k is not his 
either, as Tenniel's k consists of a long upright stroke 
abutted by what looks like a c (see the k in "Beckett"). 
The k shown in the second example is wrong as well, 
and the squiggles that terminate "With" and "love" 
are most uncharacteristic for Tenniel's writing of the 
1870s. Since the inscriptions on two other reversed 
Alice drawings (that I have not been able to see) have 
wording similar to the one dated 1867, I suspect that 
they will have the same faults. 10 

A half-title page with two Looking-Glass drawings 
shows that an impressively elaborate work may turn 
out to be an aggregation of errors (fig. 2). 11 I refer 
to the upper drawing, in which Alice emerges from 
the looking-glass. As the copyist has not accounted 
for the turning of the skull, Alice's forehead juts out 
uncomfortably at the hairline. Furthermore, the face 
lacks the sweetness of the original (fig. 3). But even 


JL. /?. wry. 



Fig. 1. Sample of Tenniel's writing, and two inscriptions taken from half-title drawings 

more unsound is the lower part of the figure. This is 
worth examining further. 

So fixed are the preconceptions of most ama- 
teur artists regarding anatomy and foreshortening 
that they will persist in certain errors, even when they 
think they are making an exact copy of an artist's 
drawing — even when they are tracing it. For example, 
foreshortened forms, which are drawn reduced in 
length, must at the same time retain their full width. 
Amateurs will frequently diminish them laterally as 
well, resulting in pitiably shrunken limbs, hands, or 
feet. 12 We see this in the foot that Alice places on the 
mantel. Moreover it is a left foot, although it origi- 
nates from her right hip. Compare the much clearer 
resolution of the figure in Tenniel's drawing. 

Note that the hatching lines are made with a 
straightedge, whereas Tenniel's are done freehand. 
Also, Tenniel, who was a superb designer, would not 
have combined the drawing and the letters of the title 
in so arbitrary a manner. And, finally, the handwrit- 
ing is too rounded to be his. 

If more of Tenniel's Alice drawings come to light, 
they will almost certainly fit the pre-publication types 
described here. However, category and provenance 
alone will not always guarantee authenticity. The 
counterfeiting of these prized pictures began early in 
the last century, and examples are found in respected 
collections. Before investing large sums, the prospec- 
tive purchaser should seek the opinion of a qualified 

Tenniel did complete many of his Punch cartoons 
on commission and for future sale. His statement 
to the Punch historian, his letters, his exhibition re- 
cord, and the numerous finished cartoon drawings 
that show up in museums, auction houses, galleries, 
and private collections testify to this. If Tenniel had 
redrawn his book illustrations for sale, one would ex- 
pect the same evidence to have surfaced, not only for 
the Alices but for the thirty-five other books that con- 
tain his designs. To my knowledge, it has not. 13 The 
conjecture that Tenniel redrew his Alice pictures as 
gifts or commissioned works merely opens the door 
for more forged copies. 

1 George du Maurier, "The Illustrating of Books. From 
the Serious Artist's Point of View — I," Magazine of Art 13 
(1890): 352; and George and Edward Dalziel, The Brothers 
Dalziel: A Record of Fifty Years' Work 1840-1890 (London: 
Methuen, 1901), 124-25. On Tenniel's methods 

see Frankie Morris, "Drawing on Wood," in Artist of 
Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of 
Tenniel (Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia Press, 
2005), 107-18. 

2 The value studies that I noted when I examined the 
Hartley Looking-Glass in London in 1987 were for "Sheep 
in shop," "King's horses and men," and "Frog gardener." 
All illustration titles used in this article are Carroll's own. 

3 In this I agree with Eleanor M. Garvey and W. H. Bond, 
introduction to Tenniel's Alice: Drawings by Sir John Tenniel 
for "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "Through the 
Looking-Glass" (Cambridge: Department of Printing and 
Graphic Arts, Harvard College Library, 1978). The ten 






Fig. 2. Half-title page of 1 8 72 Looking-Glass, Watkinson Library, 
Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut 

finished drawings on bristol board for Wonderland are 
not reversed and appear to be genuine. The same book 
has three Looking-Glass drawings on board, two reversed 
and one not (pp. 49, 55, and 61), the draftsmanship of 
which raises doubts. But I would have to see the drawings 
themselves before being certain. Garvey and Bond (p. 
10) indicate that a "Tenniel nephew named Calkins" 
(the bookbinder Arthur Edward Calkin?) authenticated 
them. But, as these drawings would not have been among 
those given to him to bind into the Harcourt Amory 
Looking-Glass, Calkin could easily have been mistaken. 
See also, inscription in sketch copy for Thomas Moore, 
Lalla Rookh: An Oriental Romance (London: Longman, 
Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1861), with sixty-nine 
illustrations by Tenniel, Pierpont Morgan Library; and 
Justin G. Schiller, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: An 1865 
Printing Re-Described (privately printed for the Jabberwock, 
1990) (hereafter cited as Re-Described), 61, 63, 66, 71-73, 
76, 78, 80-85, 87-88, 93, 95, 97-98, 100-101, and 103. 
The Dalziels' signature should not be taken as evidence 
for such a role as it was customary for engravers to sign 
their blocks. The somewhat illegible marks after "Dalziel" 
read "sc," denoting the Latin sculpsit ("he engraved 

Fig. 3. Tenniel, "Looking-glass," illustration for Lewis Carroll, 
Through the Looking-Glass, 1872 

it"). The master engraver W.J. Linton, although noting 
that the Dalziels, in contrast to their work of the forties, 
had "improved and at last turned out some really 
good facsimile work, clean, honest, and minute," still 
maintained that this method of engraving was "at best 
mechanical." W.J. Linton, Some Practical Hints on Wood 
Engraving: For the Instruction of Reviewers and the Public 
(Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1879), 35. 
In an interview with M. H. Spielmann, Tenniel said, "By 
means of tracing-paper — on which 1 make all alterations 
of composition and action I may consider necessary — I 
transfer my design to the wood and draw on that." 
Quoted in M. H. Spielmann, The History of "Punch" 
(London: Cassell, 1895), 464. Tenniel's use of the single 
tracing, both to modify his design and to transfer it to the 
block, was doubtless due to the short cartoon deadline. 
On preparing wood blocks see John R. Biggs, Wood- 
Cuts (London: Blandford Press, 1958). A good working 
surface was of the utmost importance; Tenniel tested 
three preparations provided by the Punch engraver and 
opted for a mixture of brick dust and flake white, as the 
others were too soft and would not hold the penciling. 
Tenniel to Joseph Swain, October 20, n.y., Houghton 
Library. Browne's method is given in Michael Steig, 
Dickens and Phiz (Bloomington: Indiana University Press 
1978), 16. 

Reproduced in Frances Sarzano, Sir John Tenniel 
(London: Art and Technics, 1948), 63. For the 
presentation copies, see Sotheby and Co. catalogue 
for April 2-4, 1928, 55, item 345. 
Reproduced in Schiller, Re-Described , 74-75 and 79. 
Ibid., 62-65, 100, 101, and 103. 
These are: a half-title drawing of "Hatter (shoes)," 
inscribed "WithJT's [monogram] kind regards / Xmas. 


1867," reproduced in Sarzano, 57; a half-tide drawing 
of Hatta, from "Fight of Lion and Unicorn," inscribed 
"WithJTs [monogram] kind love / Christmas 1871," 
reproduced in Schiller, Re-Described, 54; a half-title 
drawing of "Looking-glass [second picture]," and "Knight 
on poker," inscribed "Ever yours — JT [monogram]," 
reproduced in Schiller, Re-Described, 63; and a drawing 
on a single sheet of "Old man on gate," inscribed 
"WithJTs [monogram] kind regards / Xmas. 1878," 
reproduced in Kimerly Rorschach, Blake to Beardsley: The 
Artist as Illustrator (Philadelphia: Rosenbach Museum 
and Library, 1988), 48. The bad drawing of the Hatter's 
feet and shoes, the flatness of the teacup, easily disqualify 
the first example. The discrepancies in the second are 
more subtle: the hand with the cup lacks Tenniel's 
elegant handling, the tea is missing, and Hatta's eye 
should not be closed. For the third drawing, see text. 
The reproduction of the fourth is too small to be 
examined carefully; here, as in the second example, the 
handwriting is the clincher. 

These are: an unlocated reversed drawing of "Frog 
gardener," described in Schiller, Re-Described, 103, as 
inscribed "With Mr Tenniel's kind regards. Christmas 
1876"; and a reversed drawing of "Sending message 
to fish," at the Newberry Library, inscribed "With JT's 
[monogram] kind regards, Xmas 1875," described 
in Schiller, Re-Described, 100. In addition, Schiller, Re- 
Described, 62-65, notes, but does not locate, two drawings 

inscribed to Miss Marian Fritchet — one in an 1866 
Wonderland, with a drawing of "rabbit runs away," and 
the other in an 1872 Looking-Glass, with a drawing of 
"Looking-glass [second picture]." 
Reproduced in Schiller, Re-Described, 63. 
A case in point is Hatta's shriveled right arm in a copy 
of "Hatta in prison" that is bound into an 1872 Looking- 
Glass. Reproduced in Schiller, Re-Described, 98. For other 
reasons — the flawed anatomy of Alice's left hand and the 
uncharacteristic head — fig. 23, Schiller, Re-Described, 72, is 
a problematic drawing. 

Tenniel told Spielmann, "The first [cartoon] sketch I 
may, and often do, complete later on as a commission." 
Quoted in Spielmann, 464. See also, Tenniel to Canon 
Valpy, March 11, and 21, April 24, May, 3 and 8, 1898, 
Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum. 
Tenniel did redo two or three of his Ingoldsby Legends 
designs as watercolors in 1873 when he resumed 
exhibiting; one was shown at the Royal Academy in 
that year. See Tenniel to Mr. Stonehouse, July 8, 1901, 
Pierpont Morgan Library, on the sale of the original 
sketch copy of Lalla Rookh. Tenniel may have had a sale in 
mind when he had the original Ingoldsby Legends tracings 
mounted. See Tenniel to Arthur Edward Calkin, October 
6, 1905, collection of Robert Riviere Calkin. 








"^^^^^s a result of the expiration of the British 
J^hA copyright in 1907, 1 the Edwardians were 
M. A.the first generation to see a proliferation of 

newly illustrated editions of the Alice books. Edward- 
ian illustrators faced the problem of addressing an 
icon that was of its time yet suggestive of alternative 
visual interpretations. This tension between an abso- 
lute faith in an iconic set of images 
and a desire to replace them mani- 
fests itself in the aesthetic choices 
illustrators must make when con- 
fronting an original text. In addi- 
tion to questions of Alice's physical 
appearance and expressions, any 
potential illustrator also had to de- 
termine what type of child his Alice 
should be: What would be her rela- 
tive similarity to Tenniel's Alice, the 
starting point from which all suc- 
cessive illustrators — whether con- 
sciously or not — depart? Because 
the Edwardian age directly followed 
the Victorian era, the issue of how 
to deal with Tenniel's obviously Vic- 
torian Alice — the only well-known 
published visualization of the char- 
acter and thus the only model — was 
an especially acute one for Edward- 
ian illustrators. 2 Should a specifically Victorian Alice 
be retained? Or should the Victorian child be altered 
and filtered through the Edwardian imagination? 
Should Alice tend toward the nostalgic or the mod- 
ern? And lastly, should the illustrator perpetuate or 
respond to the Victorian ideal of childhood? 

Victoria Sears Goldman, now at Princeton in the third year of 
a PhD program in art history, wrote this as her undergraduate 
senior thesis from Barnard in 2003. We are publishing this in its 
entirety over several issues of the Knight Letter, this article being 
the third of six sections. References may be to books cited in 
parts of her article previously published in the Knight Letter. 

Newell, 1901 

The ideals of childhood developed during the 
Victorian era evolved and reemerged around the 
turn of the twentieth century as the Edwardian off- 
spring of the "Romantic/Victorian legacy." 3 By this 
time, British culture was already "suffused with the 
theme of youth." 4 The work of inventing the Child 
was complete; it was up to the Edwardians to appro- 
priate and refine it. The object of ideal- 
ization shifted from the innocent little 
girl to the spirited, adventurous boy. 
This being the case, why then did J. M. 
Barrie's Peter Pan, in spite of its popular- 
ity, not remain an icon beyond its own 
time? Why are newly illustrated editions 
of Peter Pan not published every few 
years? The heroes of late nineteenth- 
and early twentieth-century children's 
literature — such as Kidnapped, Huckle- 
berry Finn, and Treasure Island in addi- 
tion to Peter Pan — tended to be boys, 
and yet none of these characters has 
achieved the iconic status of Alice. 5 
These books were not revisited and ap- 
propriated by successive generations 
numerous times. Is Peter Pan's desire 
not to grow up simply too idealistic and 
specifically Edwardian to withstand the 
passage of time? Perhaps it is Alice's 
desire to grow up that renders her culturally and his- 
torically adaptable. The drawings of Peter Newell and 
Arthur Rackham illustrate how, rather than simply re- 
placing or perpetuating a nostalgic, Victorian ideal, 
the Edwardians instead took the Victorian child and 
revised it. 

Newell was the first post-Tenniel artist to il- 
lustrate the Alice books in an innovative way. In 
his introduction to the 1901 edition of Wonderland, 
E. S. Martin writes that in his illustrations, Newell "of- 
fers us Alice as she appears to him." 6 Indeed, New- 
ell wrote of his commission as an "attempt to portray 
what Alice means to me" (emphasis added). 7 He felt 


very strongly about his particular conception of Alice, 
and this was fortunate, for as the first major illustrator 
of the stories since Tenniel, he was forced to defend 
his choices and "the apparent audacity of his trying to 
replace Tenniel." 8 

Yet Newell's illustrations are perhaps successful 
and appealing because, they do not adhere 
strictly to Tenniel's, either in terms of style 
or form. In fact, Newell's Alice is quite a 
different girl than Tenniel's somewhat stiff 
Victorian. Newell's scenes, which include 
those Carroll chose for Tenniel to de- 
pict, are quite vivid, and reveal his unique 
style. There is no shortage of criticism of 
Newell's pictures: "The drawings having a 
flat theatrical quality with neither the sim- 
plicity to endear them to children nor the 
perception to appeal to adults and in no 
way rivaling the humor and the draftsman- 
ship of Tenniel." 9 1 believe, however, that 
Newell's incorporation of humor into his 
Alice illustrations was one of the reasons 
for their success. Newell always wanted to 
be a cartoonist, and his comic sensibility is 
clear from the jovial nature of his charac- 
ters and their amusing facial expressions. Newell, 1901 

Visually, Newell's Alice, and his Won- 
derland in general, are bolder and more 
three-dimensional. Whereas Tenniel's fig- 
ures are isolated against the white back- 
ground of the text, Newell creates a shad- 
owy though not forbidding world inhabited 
by his characters. Detailed only in the ele- 
ments essential to the particular narra- 
tive depicted, his backgrounds, with their 
strong play between light and shade, are 
evocative of a world other than our own, 
one that suggests the unknown and the 
mysterious. Especially effective is Newell's 
illustration of Alice and the Fawn. A stream 
of sunshine appears to break through the 
canopy of a dark forest to illuminate the 
characters. Alice, her presence felt in every 
illustration, is quite childlike in both face 
and body, and appears younger than in 
Tenniel's illustration. She is more actively 
engaged in her surroundings. In the origi- Newell, 1901 
nal illustrations, we hardly see Alice react- 
ing to anything. Newell, on the other hand, 
explicitly shows us, in her expressions and gestures, 
how and why she reacts. For example, Alice displays 
an emphatic expression of wonder as she reacts to 
the leg of mutton's bow during dinnertime. Tenniel's 
Alice seems to exhibit little, if any, wonder while in 
Wonderland. Tenniel (or rather, Carroll) chose to de- 
pict the leg of mutton in isolation, emphasizing its 
peculiarity rather than Alice's reaction to it. As de- 

picted by Tenniel, Alice also seems uncomfortable 
amongst the characters she encounters. Of course, 
she is understandably ill at ease, but Newell's Alice 
is more believably integrated into her surroundings. 
Visibly exhausted, Newell's Alice slouches next to the 
Gryphon and Mock Turtle as she tells them of her ad- 
ventures, seemingly frustrated at 
the prospect of recounting them. 
Tenniel's Alice sits on the rocks, 
listening, but revealing no emo- 
tional connection or reaction to 
the Mock Turtle's story. Newell, I 
suggest, evokes a stronger sense 
of her being in Wonderland. 

That said, however, Newell 
risks making his characters, par- 
ticularly his Alice, loo nice. Ab- 
sent from his drawings is much 
of Tenniel's satiric wit and sharp, 
sophisticated political and cul- 
tural references. Anne Higon- 
net's characterization of many 
Edwardian images of children 
supports this reading of Newell's 
illustrations. She suggests that 
during the Edwardian years, "All 
passion and reason had been 
leeched out of the image of 
the child, leaving sentiment." 10 
Newell's own description of his 
conception of Alice points to 
her sentimental nature. Unlike 
Tenniel's, and certainly unlike 
many that were to follow later in 
the twentieth century, for New- 
ell "The dominant note in the 
character is childish purity and 
sweetness." 11 Newell's Alice is: 

A sweet, childish spirit at 
home in the midst of mystery 
... a demure, quaint little 
girl, with a strict regard for 
the proprieties of life, and a 
delicate sense of consider- 
ation for the feelings of oth- 
ers . . . [an underlying] sim- 
ple, sincere faith which seems 
to be the peculiar property of 
childhood, and which upon all occasions in- 
duces in her a respectful attitude. 12 

Does this saccharine Alice comply with Edward- 
ian views of childhood? On many accounts, it does. 
For example, in Newell's illustrations, we see her with 
her arms wrapped tenderly around the fawn. She ap- 
pears willing to assist Humpty Dumpty and the White 
Knight, and yet she discloses a tomboyish spirit as she 


plunges her arms over the side of the Sheep's boat 
into the river, and resists the cards swirling fitfully 
around her. This combination of innocent girlishness 
and adventurous spirit makes Newell's Alice an ideal 
Edwardian child. 

In 1907, Arthur Rackham illustrated a new edi- 
tion of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Rackham's 
drawings, tinted in reds and browns, are dim and 
gloomy and possess a melancholic character ab- 
sent from Tenniel's. His landscapes and interiors 
are highly detailed, intricately lined, and delicately 
shaded. Translucent areas of color wash over his lin- 
early defined backgrounds. Rackham's Wonderland 
seems to be shrouded in an ever-present fog. But in 
spite of his atmospheric illustrations, which differ 
vastly from Tenniel's stiffer, more linear approach, 
Rackham pays homage to Tenniel 
and recognizes his importance. 
Rackham's characters are often 
"actually Tenniel's conceptions 
transformed into characteristically 
Rackham grotesques; they remain 
basically the same as the originals." 13 
In fact, Rackham is often seen as 
the only illustrator of Alice whose 
indebtedness to the originals is ap- 
parent and who merits any favorable 
comparison to Tenniel. 

There are two crucial distinc- 
tions between the illustrations of 
Rackham and of Tenniel. First, 
"each figure in the Rackham draw- 
ings is individually depicted, each 
with his own expression, while 
Tenniel's are not. Rackham's char- 
acters react. [This is] nowhere more 
apparent than in the pictures of 
Alice herself." 14 Like Newell's Alice, 
Rackham's is acutely aware of her surroundings, and 
readers can see her emotions manifested in her ex- 
pressions and gestures. Alice's awareness and expres- 
siveness are especially vivid in Rackham's depiction of 
Alice and the pig. This scene also reveals Rackham's 
skillful and "precise recording of a fleeting moment 
of drama." 15 Whereas Tenniel's Alice appears fro- 
zen — apparently not by surprise, but by the normality 
of the situation — Rackham shows her at the moment 
of transformation. While walking with a baby in her 
arms, she suddenly stops in her tracks, leans in, and, 
in disbelief, realizes the baby has just turned into a 
pig. Rackham shows Alice's alarm when the pig con- 
tinues to grunt violently. Throughout Rackham's il- 
lustrations Alice is seen responding to various stimuli, 
strengthening the visual and narrative connection be- 
tween her and other characters. The face of Tenniel's 
Alice remains constant in spite of the action. Writing 
to Rackham, one of his friends even wrote, "Your de- 

Newell, 1901 

lightful Alice is alive and makes Tenniel's Alice look 
like a stiff puppet." 17 When tin- pack of cards rises 
into the air, in the Tenniel illustration Alice seems to 
be posing stiffly with her arms above her head. Rack- 
ham's Alice, on the other hand, appears frightened, 
and her dress whirls around her, echoing the motion 
of the cards. The illustration is one of movement and 
dynamism. Aside from the emotions and powers of 
reaction with which Rackham endows Alice, the over- 
all difference between the illustrators is most obvious 
in their respective treatments of Alice's character. 
Rackham's Alice is "a middle-class pre-adolescent girl, 
calm, sweet and gentle, yet with a maturity missing 
in Tenniel's original print." 16 Her "air of sweetness 
and docility," however, does not compensate for an 
absence of "the strength, the pertness, the detached 
poise and air of artless, clear-slighted 
logicality," 19 a logicality that may be the 
result of Tenniel's stiff, rigid characters, 
who seem self-absorbed and somewhat 
nonresponsive to the totally illogical 
characters with whom they interact. 

Second, Rackham creates a com- 
plete world in his illustrations. Tenniel's 
characters float amidst the whiteness of 
the page. His illustrations are ultimately 
subservient to Carroll's text because, 
rather than assert their own autonomy, 
they merge with the text into a some- 
what awkward whole. By constructing a 
distinct world that responds to but does 
not cling to the text, Rackham's illustra- 
tions take on a life of their own. He fills 
out Wonderland, extends its bound- 
aries infinitely beyond the central 
characters. His Wonderland's strange 
roughness reworks Tenniel's Victorian 
Wonderland in a more outdoors-ori- 
ented Edwardian style. Rackham's world is composed 
of highly detailed interiors and exteriors that create 
an atmosphere that enlivens the text and imbues it 
with a tone altogether different from that evoked 
by Tenniel. Rackham's "delicately, naturalistically 
drawn" Alice is part of this world, and she contrasts 
sharply with his turbulent landscapes, producing a 
"strange, nightmarish effect." 18 For example, during 
the Mad Tea Party, the March Hare's house looks like 
an abandoned garden shed — an unsettling image. 
Alice herself is somewhat unsettling, appearing to be 
in some sort of trancelike state as she responds to the 
antics of the party. In her Edwardian dress, and with 
her blonde hair and porcelain skin, Alice contrasts 
with the gnarled tree that hangs overhead, the cold, 
rocky ground, and the decrepit house and fence — an 
effective and disturbingjuxtaposition. 

I suggest that this emphasis on landscape not only 
differs from Tenniel's more compact and less evoca- 


tive depictions of the character's surroundings, but 
also illustrates the Edwardian insistence on the im- 
portance of the outdoors in the ideal life of a child. 
Victorian children's stories are "as cluttered and claus- 
trophobic as a dark, frilly nineteenth-century draw- 
ing room." 20 But around 1900, "the landscape of chil- 
dren's books opens out, to the wide 
vistas of Grahame's Arcadian river 
bank and Barrie's exotic island, to 
the rural lanes and villages of Bea- 
trix Potter's Peter Rabbit tales." 21 
The landscapes of these stories 
were reflected in their heroes. 
They consisted of a combination 
of "romantic exploration of a great 
outdoors and boyish high spirits 
with Victorian sentimentality." 22 
Rackham's Alice comes as close 
as a girl can to the idolized boys 
of the period. She retains a sense 
of propriety and primness, yet she 
adopts a rugged confidence as she 
confronts the strange, unfamiliar 
landscapes. When Alice grows to 
the height of the trees, Rackham 
blurs the boundaries between Alice 
and the trees. Her swirling hair 
and the gnarled trees combine to 
form art-nouveau-like vegetation. 
Her elongated neck disappears 
in the image, and her head itself 
seems to sprout organically from 
the branches. The outdoor land- 
scape is central to both Rackham's 
Wonderland and to the Edwardian 
fantasy of childhood, and Alice is 
thoroughly engaged with it. 

Rackham's Wonderland land- 
scape consists of swirling foli- 
age and rocky, desolate expanses 
that render his illustrations vivid 
and dynamic, and very unlike 
Tenniel's static, restrained style. 
Furthermore, "the complex vec- 
tors of the grass and flowers in the 
background of his picture create a 
dramatic, grotesque atmosphere 
that is absent from Tenniel's." 23 
Yet it is through a radical rework- 
ing of Tenniel's illustrations that 
Rackham, in fact, calls attention 
to Tenniel's significance and au- 

Edwardian writer and illustra- 
tor Beatrix Potter was also among those who affirmed 
the authority of Tenniel's illustrations. Unlike Rack- 
ham, however, Potter asserted Tenniel's authority 

Rackham, 1907 

Rackham, 1907 

through the assertion of her own authority. In 1927 
Potter wrote, "Dickens, and Alice-in-Wonderland, 
have been illustrated once and for all." 24 Yet thirty-five 
years earlier, in the early to mid-1 890s, Potter herself 
tried her hand at illustrating the classic stories. She 
seems to have made only six drawings. While some 
allusions to Tenniel's illustrations 
are present, unlike Tenniel and all 
other illustrators of Alice, Potter 
does not depict any of the story's 
human characters, including Alice. 
Paradoxically, it is Alice's absence 
that serves as a tribute to Tenniel's 
authority. Potter is singular among 
Alice illustrators in her recognition 
that if the integrity of Tenniel's vi- 
sion was to be preserved, his most 
famous creation must be left un- 

Alice appears not once in Pot- 
ter's illustrations of Alice, a story in 
which the title character is both the 
narrative and, given the central- 
ity of childhood in both Carroll's 
personal and literary lives, the the- 
matic center. Aside from embody- 
ing Potter's recognition of her 
distance from and the authority of 
Tenniel, does Potter's exclusion of 
Alice suggest anything about her 
opinion of typical Edwardian at- 
titudes toward childhood? Potter 
was obviously fond of children, as 
is indicated not only by her pub- 
lished works, but also by the mul- 
titude of letters that she, like Car- 
roll, wrote to young friends. Was 
Potter's decision to depict only 
the animal characters of Alice due 
simply to her overall avoidance of 
human subjects? As a naturalist, 
she carefully depicted the realities 
of nature and its creatures. With 
Alice, she encountered an upside- 
down world of fantasy and non- 
sense. Or was there another, more 
complex explanation for her ex- 
clusion of Alice? Alice as a para- 
digm of childhood was so power- 
ful and held such appeal that in 
Potter's eyes, the only option was 
to exclude her, to create a Won- 
derland without Alice. Potter's 
innovative and unique decision 
reveals just how much control Alice exerted over the 
visual imagination; in order to do something different 
with the stories, one must go so far as to exclude their 


title character. Would or could Alice illustrations that 
lacked an Alice be successful? We cannot know, for 
Beatrix Potter's Alice illustrations seem to have been 
only for her own edification: "With regard to illustrat- 
ing other people's books, I have a strong feeling that 
every outside book which I did, would prevent me 
from finishing one of my own. . . I will stick to doing 
as many as I can of my own books." 25 

After the first decade of the twentieth century, 
there was no shortage of new illustrated editions of 
the Alice books. However, none has proved to be par- 
ticularly innovative or memorable to this day. There 
are, I suggest, several reasons for the overwhelming 
absence of endearing or successful Alices from the 
1910s until the mid-twentieth century. 

World War I irrevocably ended English society's 
confidence in and idolization of its children. 2(S The 
world shifted its attention to its young adults, to those 
who actually had an impact on it. The idealization of 
childhood purity and its ebullient spirit had become 
outdated. Freudian theory, which claimed that chil- 
dren were utterly sexual beings, outmoded books 
such as Alice and Peter Pan that insisted upon the 
child's sexual innocence. The post-Edwardian age 
could not produce child icons with the power of Alice 
or Peter Pan because war and psychoanalysis ended 
the Victorian legacy's focus on childhood and re- 

placed it with one on adolescence. After the war, the 
child was no longer an appropriate ideal: "England 
was neither secure, innocent, nor optimistic about 
the future." 27 The Edwardians encountered an ex- 
plicitly Victorian icon that could be neither replaced 
nor wholly believed. Illustrators from then on were 
faced with continuing and expanding the task begun 
by the Edwardians: adapting and appropriating Alice 
for their particular time and place. Future Alices that 
attempted to regain a Victorian or Edwardian inno- 
cence failed. It was those specifically of their time and 
those that presented Alice as a not-so-little girl 
would prove most innovative and meaningful. 

1 Peter Newell 's illustrated edition was published in the 
United States by Harper Bros., New York, in 1901. 

2 Images of Alice Liddell were not yet widely known, as 
Carroll's photographs had only been recently published 
in Stuart Collingwood Dodgson's 1898 biography of 
his uncle. A facsimile of Alice's Adventures under Ground, 
Carroll's handwritten manuscript containing his original 
drawings had been published in 1886, but was not yet 
widely circulated. Only two illustrated editions of the 
books, both American, had appeared between Through 
the Looking-Glass in 1871 and Newell's edition in 1901. 

3 Jackie Wullschlager, Inventing Wonderland (New York: The 
Free Press, 1995), 153. 

4 Ibid., 147. 

Tenniel, 1865 

Rackham, 1907 


Ibid., 112. 

Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, with an 

introduction by Edward Sandford Martin (New York: 

Harper, 1901), xii. 

Peter Newell, "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, from an 

Artist's Standpoint," reprinted in More Annotated Alice, 

Martin Gardner (New York: Random House, 1990), xvii. 

Michael Patrick Hearn, "Peter Newell (1862-1924)" in 

More Annotated Alice, Martin Gardner (New York: Random 

House, 1990), xxx. 

The Illustrators of Alice in Wonderland, edited by Graham 

Ovenden, with an introduction by John Davis (New York: 

St. Martin's Press, 1972), 10. 

Anne Higonnet, Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis 

of Ideal Childhood (London: Thames and Hudson, 1998), 


Newell, "Artist's Standpoint," xvii. 

Ibid., xvii. 

Michael Patrick Hearn, "Arthur Rackham's Adventures 

in Wonderland" in Lewis Carroll Observed, ed. Edward 

Guiliano (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1976), 36. 

Hearn, "Peter Newell," 89. 

15 Mikiko Chimori, "Shigeru Hatsuyama's Unpublished 
Alice Illustrations: A Comparative Study of Japanese and 
Western Art," The Carrollian 4 (Autumn 1999): 55. 

16 Hearn, "Peter Newell," 35. 

17 Chimori, "Shigeru Hatsuyama," 50. 

18 Ibid., 50. 

19 Hearn, "Peter Newell," 39. 

20 Wullschlager, Inventing Wonderland, 145. 

21 Ibid. 

22 Ibid. 

23 Chimori, "Shigeru Hatsuyama," 53. 

24 Judy Taylor et al., Beatrix Potter 1866-1943: The Artist and 
Her World (London: The National Trust, 1987), 69. 

25 Ibid., 70. 

26 Wullschlager, Inventing Wonderland, 204. 

27 Ibid., 205. 


L6AV6S ££00? 

Tbe Deaneny Ganden 

I was amused to see Gary Brock- 
man's reference to me in KL 76, 
page 25, regarding my encoun- 
ter with Douglas Adams and the 
number 42. I'd forgotten that I'd 
written in about that. Before his 
untimely death, I believe Adams 
had said in print numerous times 
that the number 42 was purely 
random, and I can understand 
his defensiveness when people 
kept pestering him for some 
hidden meaning or underlying 
significance. However, one may 
wonder if the number lingered 
in his subconscious from reading 
the Alice books and that it might 
not have been entirely as "ran- 
dom" as he thought. Or perhaps 
something else just brings that 
number to mind when pondering 
imponderables. What, ultimately, 
may it matter? We're all mad here 
anyway. Here's to coincidence and 

Michael Welch 


includes several pages (111-116) 
on syllogisms featuring those of 
Lewis Carroll from his Symbolic 
Logic, Part I (1896) . For readers 
willing to try this kind of reason- 
ing, what can you conclude from 
the two premises: Every eagle can 
fly; Some pigs cannot fly? 

(The not so obvious answer: 
There are some pigs that are not 

Fran Abeles 

A recent book, Eric Schechter's 
Classical and Nonclassical Logics 
(Princeton University Press, 2005) 


Just arrived in the mail today is a 
slick, thick (90 pp.), and tall pub- 
lication with a dark silvery cover, 
called Journeys Through the Looking 
Glass. Tenniel's Alice is in the arm- 
chair with the kitten (dark silver 
ink on a light silver background). 
There are Tenniel illustrations 
from both Alice books throughout 
the publication, some breaking 
text, some full page. 

This is the 2005 Annual Report 
of Yale-New Haven Hospital, sub- 
titled Patients' Perspectives. Page 1 
frames with Mervyn Peake illustra- 
tions a preface accurately describ- 

ing the Alice books and empha- 
sizing the trauma, confusion and 
puzzles Alice encountered in her 
journeys. This is likened to the ex- 
perience of ill and injured patients 
entering hospital treatment. The 
text of the report contains personal 
stories (and photos) of various pa- 
tients' "journeys" to healing as well 
as lists of staff and donors. Page 90 
frames with Mervyn Peake illustra- 
tions the "A boat beneath a sunny 
sky" acrostic from Wonderland. 

Gary Brockman 

One may acquire a copy by requesting 
it of Katie Murphy (Katie. Murphy® 


I really enjoyed Frederick C. 
Lake's far-too-short suggestion in 
the Spring 2006 Knight Letter that 
the Alices should be considered as 
oral folk tradition/fairy tale. No 
matter how difficult the effort, 
to divorce these books from the 
personality of their fascinating 
author and consider them purely 
in literary traditions has, I think, 
great promise. It locates them. For 


example, to think of the Alices as 
fairy tales groups them instantly 
with the Sylvie and Bruno books, ac- 
cesses many, many established fairy 
tale motifs, and in addition places 
Carroll for consideration in a 
category also holding James Barrie 
and George MacDonald. 

Lake points out that he leaves 
detailed application of his idea to 
others, and one such device which 
comes instantly to mind is the 
"Magic Helper" — fairy godmother, 
talking cat, etc. — so common to 
fairy tales. If we consider all cats, 
which Alice regards rightly as 
friends and protectors, as a set of 
magic helpers, much is instantly 
clarified. The confrontation be- 
tween the Cheshire Cat and the 
Queen in the garden takes on new 
meaning if the Cat functions as 
Alice's champion. This principle 
also provides order by linking 
Dinah to Cheshire, and of course, 
nothing could be clearer than 
Carroll's insistence on the trans- 
formation of the black and white 
kittens into Alice's chief guides in 
Looking Glass — the Red and White 
Queens. Though abandoning 
their traditional behavior, this duo 
nevertheless act the parts of fairy 
godmothers. Like them, magic 
helpers are often linked in some 

formal way in traditional fairy 
tales — the four winds, etc. 

To consider the Alices, then, in 
the context of a type, does much 
to explore and explain them, 
along with providing an objective 
view of some of Carroll's personal 
techniques. (For example, most 
oral or literary fairy tales would 
never lay the groundwork so care- 
fully as Carroll does for the transi- 
tion of the black kitten into the 
Red Queen, and its significance.) 
This, paradoxically, tends to bring 
us closer to Carroll, not divide us 
from him. 

Good for Frederick C. Lake. 

Chloe Nichols 

Victoria Goldman's statement on 
page 18 of this issue — "Newell's 
scenes, which include those 
Carroll chose for Tenniel to de- 
pict..." — happened to catch my 
eye. That assumption, made by 
some earlier writers — based appar- 
ently on the existence of Carroll's 
pagination guides — is disproved by 
the letters from Tenniel to Carroll 
that I located at various libraries 
in 1981. One, written on 4 April, 
1870, shows that Tenniel furnished 

information for Carroll's guides. It 
was standard practice for the illus- 
trators to choose the subjects; in 
a letter of 8 March, 1865, Tenniel 
writes, "The subjects I have se- 
lected from it ["A Mad Tea-party"] 
are... ." 

This question is more fully 
covered in my Artist of Wonderland, 
pages 142-44. 

Frankie Morris 

Why is a raven like a writing desk? 

Alice in Wonderland and Alice 
Through the Looking-Glass were 
both produced as texts for MI6 
mind-control programming. Rev. 
Charles Dodgson was one of the 
elite of British Intelligence. (I also 
became "enlightened" and "initi- 
ated" into this group, on the MI5 
Russian course in 1980.) 

The answer to the riddle lies 
in British Freemasonry and their 
Zionist agenda. 

The Raven = Felice Ravenna, 
the lawyer of Theodore Herzl . . . 

From a letter addressed to webcontact® from "Emily Emily, " 
who seems to forget that MI 5 was 
founded in 1914. 



r~v " 




11 'HOW CAN I 

*zi " 






Ravings j:nom The Waning Desk 



Goodness, where to begin? Oh, right. 
First of all, I'm positively beamish to 
serve as the Society's new president. Thank 
you. On behalf of everyone, I would like to thank Alan 
Tannenbaum once again for his presidential service 
over the past four years. I also salute the 
ongoing and largely unsung contributions 
of the Board and Advisory Panel, who work 
behind the scenes to keep the LCSNA run- 
ning. Singly and collectively, they exhibit a 
wisdom that puts Father William to shame. 
goal the first: seeing more and more of 
you become actively involved in the Society. 

For those of you unable to attend our 
fall meeting, from my perspective and 
judging by the praise I overheard, it was 
just the sort of meeting we should always 
have: a good turnout, some new members, 
and a broad spectrum of entertaining and 
enlightening presenters — a publisher, 
an author, a bibliographer, and an 
illustrator. (Hmmm... sounds almost 
like a Snark-hunting crew!) So thanks to 
all of our speakers for taking time out of 
their extremely busy schedules (Adam 
Gopnik interrupted a book tour to give 
us his inspiring talk and to sign the new 
Annotated Snark edition) and, in at least 
one case, traveling a great distance with 
a large portmanteau (Peggy Guest and her husband 
Joe flew in from Missouri to share a large selection 
of her original Snark illustrations, and autograph 
free posters and postcards). 1 The added presence 
of two other gifted artists (Tatiana Ianovskaia and 
Oleg Lipchenko) showing their work, and the usual 
lovely reception at Janet Jurist's, were icing on 
an already delicious un-birthday cake. 2 goal the 
second: ensuring a healthy variety of Carroll-inspired 
presentations at each of our meetings. 

At the fall 2006 meeting, we held our tenth annual 
Maxine Schaefer Memorial Children's Outreach 
Fund reading. Speaking as one who has performed 
a good number of these over the years, I hope that 
the next time you're planning to attend a meeting, 
you will make a point to arrange your schedule to 
attend the reading as well. The children's reactions, 

questions, and insights would thrill Mr. Dodgson and 
Maxine, and are guaranteed to delight you. In the 
past decade, through this program we have presented 
dramatic readings from the Alice books at nineteen 
schools and libraries in eleven states, including the 

Perkins School for the 
Blind, and this fall's site, 
the Lexington School for 
the Deaf. So far, we have 
given out over a thousand 
free copies of the books to 
delighted children. I firmly 
believe that this program, 
started by David Schaefer, 
is one of the single most 
important things the 
Society does, goal the 
third: performing more 
academic outreach. 

We also appointed 
Mark Burstein to the new 
position of Communica- 
tions Director, expanding 
his editorial/advisory do- 
main to include overseeing 
our brochures, press re- 
leases, and Web site. If you 
haven't visited LewisCar- lately, it's been ex- 
tensively enhanced, and more improvements are on 
the way. Hats off to Joel Birenbaum for his unflagging 
efforts in that arena. Do check it out and let us know 
what you think! We are also working hard at revitaliz- 
ing the LCSNA's publishing efforts, and have a num- 
ber of exciting projects lined up. goal the fourth: 
further expanding the Society's public presence and 
Carrollian impact. 

For our spring 2007 meeting, we will celebrate 
the great Martin Gardner in Norman, Oklahoma. 
President emeritus Alan has scored a remarkable 
coup: he has persuaded the 92-year-old Mr. Gardner 
to attend the meeting in person, accompanied by his 
son. As you may know, Mr. Gardner does not usually 
attend events, even those specifically in his honor, so 
we are all indebted to Mr. Gardner, to his son, and 
to Alan for making this commitment to the LCSNA. 


The tentative date is April 28th, and more details will 
follow. It will be a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to 
celebrate this great Carrollian in person. I urge you 
to start clearing your calendar and saving for your air- 
fare now. You won't want to miss it! goal the fifth: 
seeing more of you at our meetings, enjoying our fel- 
lowship in person. 

In coming to the end of my first Ravings, I want to 
note that we passed around a survey at the fall meet- 
ing to ask for member feedback on the LCSNA's di- 
rection in the future. You will note that a copy of that 
same survey is enclosed with this issue of the Knight 
Letter. I urge you to take five minutes right now to let 
us know your thoughts on what's important to you 
about the Society. As I did at the fall meeting, I offer 
an incentive: for each survey returned, I will person- 
ally send you a commemorative Peggy Guest Snark 
bookmark bearing an image of the Butcher and the 
Beaver in a moment of friendship — perfect for hold- 
ing your place in your latest Carrollian reading. The 
first twenty-five people to respond with a completed 
survey will receive a bookmark autographed by the art- 
ist, goal the sixth: receiving thoughtful and timely 
survey responses, goal the seventh: having an e-mail 

address for each of you. Money we save on postage can 
go to publishing, and we'd like to be able to send you 
more timely periodic updates on Carrollian happen- 
ings through the year. So if you don't already have an 
e-mail account, please consider obtaining one. Even 
after you return your survey, e-mail me any time: I'm 
always eager to know what you're thinking. My e-mail 
link is on the Society's Web site. 

goal the eighth: wishing you and yours a frab- 
jous winter full of smiles and soap. 

1 P e ggy Guest: 

2 Oleg Lipchenko: 
html; Tatiana Ianovskaia: 


Spare this child your sideways 

That crack in your veneer. 
Some blue broad will spoil your 

It just takes patience, dear. 
They rush you for your life, 
But you'll never beat the game. 
Older and older you get. 
Crush you like a gyre, 
But the gimble's all the same. 
Oh no, I think it's happening ... 
It's why I ain't just kissin' you — I'm 

kissin' you off. 

"Kiss You Off 
Scissor Sisters, Ta-Dah 
( Un iversal/ Motown ) 

Aldous Huxley's career as a script- 
writer virtually ended when Walt 
Disney rejected his script of Alice 
in Wonderland because he (Disney) 
"could only understand every 
third word." Huxley struck back 
with Ape and Essence (1948), which 
opens with an incredibly horrific 
depiction of LA after an atomic 
Third World War. 

Source unknown (cut from 
unidentifiable article) 

It is evening and twelve-year-old Molly 
Gibson has been "rescued " by her father 
from the suffocating grandeur of the 
local aristocratic manor where she had 
been left behind on a picnic: 

"'Molly! we're coming to the rab- 
bit-holes; it's not safe to go at such 
a pace. Stop.' And as she drew rein 
he rode up alongside of her. 

'We're getting into the shadow of 
the trees, and it's not safe riding 
fast here.' 

'Oh! papa, I never was so glad 
in all my life. I felt like a lighted 
candle when they're putting the 
extinguisher on it!" 

'Did you? How d'ye know what 
the candle feels?' 
'Oh, I don't know, but I did.'" 
From Elizabeth Gaskell's 
unfinished novel Wives and 
Daughters (first published 
in Cornhill Magazine, 





"W yhen I first edited Lewis Carroll's Diaries, 

\ M\ m particularly the Russian Journal, I came 
«Ji jfc^.across a reference to an American whom 
Dodgson met in Moscow. At that time, I could find 
nothing about him. The diary entry of 19 August 
1867, says: "While breakfasting in the coffee-room we 
had some talk with an American who was there with 
his wife and little boy, and found them very pleasant 
people. At parting he gave me his card — 'R. M. 
Hunt, Membre du Jury International de 1'Exposition 
Universelle de 1867 - Studio B8 51 
W. 10th n. New York.' If I ever visit 
New York, I may possibly get this 
mysterious address interpreted." A 
week later (26 August), Dodgson 
writes, "At 2 we entered the train 
for our weary journey to Warsaw, 
and found ourselves in the same 
carriage, though not the same 
compartment, with the Hunts, 
who were on their way to Berlin, 
so that our routes were the same 
to Wilna, which we reached 6 p.m. 
During the evening we visited each 
other, and my travelling chess- 
board proved of service. We had 
no sleeping accommodation, but 
as the carriage was nearly empty, 
we did very well." 

I am now compiling a complete 
index to the nine volumes of 
Lewis Carroll's Diaries, and again 
tried to find out who this Mr. 
R. M. Hunt with the mysterious 
address was. With the help of the 
Internet, I have now tracked him 
down. Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895) was a very 
important American architect, born in Battleboro, 
Vermont, on 31 October 1827, originating from a 
wealthy English family. He began his training as an 
architect in Switzerland, moved to Paris in 1843, 
and in 1846, became the first American architect to 

Richard Morris Hunt by John Singer Sargent 

attend the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He contributed to 
the extensions of the Louvre. Hunt travelled widely, 
visiting Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and various art 
centers on the Continent. He returned to America 
in 1855, and was engaged on the extensions to the 
Capitol in Washington. Hunt's brother, William 
Morris Hunt, became equally renowned, as a painter. 
In 1860, Richard married Catherine Howland 
from Newport. He had two sons, Richard Howland 
(1862-1931) and Joseph Howland (1870-1924), 
both of whom became architects. 
Dodgson met the wife and eldest 
son as noted above. Richard Morris 
Hunt founded the first American 
studio in New York for training 
young architects, at the address 
on his calling-card. He was one 
of the organizers of the American 
Institute of Architects, becoming 
their president in 1888. 

His architecture can still be 

seen in a number of residences, 

such as those for the Vanderbilts 

in New York, and others at 

Newport, Rhode Island. He 

designed and built the pedestal 

for the Statue of Liberty; the U.S. 

Naval Observatory in Washington, 

D.C.; and the Tribune building in 

New York, which was one of the 

first skyscrapers. From Dodgson 's 

diary, we know that he was selected 

as one of the jury for the Paris 

International Exhibition in 1867. 

He was awarded Chevalier of the 

Legion of Honour in 1884. 

Sadly, Dodgson did not travel to New York to 

look him up. Nor did he realize, one assumes, that 

he had met a key figure in the world of American 

architecture, whose buildings are still admired today. 


A Day in Guildpnd 


On our way to the U.K. Lewis Carroll Soci- 
ety's summer outing, our first impression 
of Guildford was of a fairly ordinary, mostly 
modern, suburban English town. As we were running 
late, we missed the morning coffee at the Yvonne Ar- 
naud Theatre cafe and went straight to the Guildford 
Museum. To do so, we cut through Rosemary Alley, a 
steep slate stairway between two buildings, the kind of 
pedestrian-only walkway that one does not see in the 
U.S., and at the top we discovered that we'd gone back 
in time several centuries. Cobbled with stones, Quarry 
Street is a mixture of black-and-white half-timbered 
houses interspersed with red brick buildings, with the 
eleventh-century Saxon tower of St. Mary's Church at 
one end, and the Castle Arch, built in 1256, sitting next 
to the 1630 hall-and-crosswings Guildford Museum at 
the other. 

As we arrived, Matthew Alexander, curator of the 
Guildford Museum and organizer of the "Victorian 
Childhood" exhibit, was just beginning his lecture on 
that topic, with a focus on the Guildford and Surrey 
area. After his talk, we viewed the museum's display 
of toys owned by the Dodgson family, including paper 
dolls, doll furniture, and a jigsaw. We then walked 
up the street to Salters Gallery, where the "Victorian 
Childhood" exhibit was being shown. Many photo- 
graphs, paintings, and toys illustrated Mr. Alexander's 
talk for us. An additional treat was the fully equipped 
Victorian schoolroom upstairs, where local school- 
children have the opportunity to experience what 
school was like a century ago. 

After a pub lunch, we returned to the museum 
to hear LCS member Shirley Jacobs read Anne Clark 
Amor's talk on Lewis Carroll's life, as Ms. Amor was 
ill and unable to attend. Touching on aspects and 
locales of Lewis Carroll's life that we would see later 
that day made the talk all the more interesting. 

Marjorie Williams, a docent at the museum, then 
took us on a tour of local Dodgson-related sites, start- 
ing with St. Mary's down the street. Again, the mix 
of architectural styles was fascinating, as the church 
has been expanded and added to repeatedly over the 
last millennium. At the very center, the remains of a 
Saxon church have been found in the chalk under 
the modern foundation, and the church added lay- 

ers out and up as a tree grows rings. Of course, of 
most interest to the society members is the fact that 
Dodgson preached here several times, his sisters at- 
tended, his funeral was held here, and a plaque on 
the pulpit, placed by the LCS on the centenary of 
Carroll's death, commemorates this. We were told 
that Mr. Dodgson did not really enjoy preaching, and 
was very nervous the first time he did so. 

We then walked around the corner, through the 
Castle Arch, and up the hill to the Chestnuts. As the 
owners were on holiday, we did not have the opportu- 
nity to see the inside, but they had given permission 
for us to be shown the front yard. The members took 
many photographs, and the various changes made to 
the house over the years (rebuilding and attaching 
the side shed, the removal of the glass stair covering, 
and the brand new roof) were much discussed. 

Next stop was Clifton House, up the hill from 
the Chestnuts, the home of friends and often visited 
by Lewis Carroll. While broken up into flats and ex- 
tensively remodeled, the building retains many of 
the original architectural details, as well as the view 
that Dodgson would have seen of Guildford Castle 
and park. Gordon and Jean Bridger and Mrs. Sallie 
Thornbury, owners of the middle and lower flats, re- 
spectively, graciously welcomed us into their homes. 

Instead of returning back down the road, Mr. 
Bridger unlocked a "secret" door in the garden wall, 
letting us directly into the Castle gardens. Passing a 
large chessboard set into a lawn, we came upon the 
sculpture of Alice feeling her way through the look- 
ing glass. Coincidentally (?), from this point we could 
also see into the back garden of the house to the left 
of the Chestnuts, where the Dodgson family's friends, 
the Haydons, lived, and where Lewis Carroll had pho- 
tographed his sisters (the slope of the hill made the 
back garden of the Chestnuts unusable). 

A drive through the countryside took us to the 
Watts Gallery in the nearby village of Compton. After 
a break for tea, orange cake, and visiting, we viewed 
the gallery. While described as being "three or four 
degrees of separation" in relation to Lewis Carroll, 
George Frederic Watts having been briefly married to 
the seventeen-year-old actress Ellen Terry, the gallery 
is well worth visiting. Watts' allegorical paintings and 


sculptures are on a grand scale and speak of grand 
themes, such as Progress and Love Triumphant, giving 
the impression that Watts was very much influenced 
by the pre-Raphaelites. Yet he also was a portraitist, 
a landscape artist, and a painter of social concerns, 
including his famous The Irish Famine. While we were 
there, the volunteers were urging visitors to vote for 
the gallery, as it was a finalist for the BBC's Restoration 
television show, and winning the competition would 
bring in much-needed funds to upgrade the build- 
ing. They ultimately won second place. 

Watts' second wife, Mary, was also an artist and 
shared his views that art should be accessible to all 
classes. In addition to being the driving force behind 
building the Watts gallery, she designed and directed 
the building of the Watts Cemetery Chapel nearby, 
teaching the local villagers to make the pottery ex- 
terior tiles and gesso interior. From the road and on 
the path up the hill, the chapel is blocked from view 
by trees, then one turns a corner and is stunned by 
one's first view of the building. Every inch of the ex- 
terior and interior is covered in Art Nouveau/Celtic/ 
Romanesque/Egyptian-influenced symbols, a "uni- 
veralist" pastiche. Many of the gravestones repeat 
these symbols, and in exploring them, we ran across 
the stone of Aldous Huxley and his family. 

Back to Guildford and up a steep hill to the local 
cemetery, The Mount, where signs pointing the way 
to where the "Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis 
Carroll)" and his sisters are buried indicate a certain 
amount of foot traffic. The sisters are buried in a row 
in the newer part of the cemetery, while Dodgson's 
grave is in the older, wooded area near the chapel. 
Surprisingly, his grave was planted with bright red-or- 
ange impatiens, and it was generally agreed that he 
would have considered it rather gaudy. Upon further 
reflection, I recalled Isa Bowman mentioning in her 
book that he did not like flowers at all!* The Carrol- 
lians in attendance spoke of actually removing the 
flowers, only somewhat in jest, but it was decided that 
the local constabulary might not view this as a respect- 
ful act, even if intended as such. 

After saying goodbye to our newfound friends, we 
decided to stop for dinner before leaving Guildford. 
Making a random right turn, we came upon another 
sculpture in a small park, appropriately enough, on 
the bank of the river Wey: Alice, sitting next to her 
reading sister, watching the rabbit just about to dash 
down its hole. 

* "Tender and kind as he was, simple and unassuming in all his 
tastes, yet he did not like flowers!" - Lewis Carroll As I Knew Him, 
Isa Bowman, 1899. 

© 2004 Boris Fijalkowski, reproduced with permission. Castle Arch was built in 1256; in 1630, 
a hall-and-crosswings house was constructed, xuhich became Guildford Museum in 1898. 


There's Glory for You 


i >y ll v>^ 

r he little town of Hay-on-Wye, with its 
population of 1400 or so, lies on the border 
of England and Wales and regards itself 

as the second-hand book capital of the world. In 

more than thirty bookshops, bibliophiles can find 

everything from cheap paperbacks (the lowest price 

I saw was equivalent to little more than 1 cent) to 

expensive first editions, and the annual Hay Festival 

of Literature attracts the biggest and best names in 

writing. The town is associated with legendary figures 

like the Giantess Matilda, who apparently built Hay 

castle in one night, and 

who was starved to death 

in a dungeon by King John 

because she allegedly knew 

about his part in his nephew 

Arthur's murder. 

Hay has its fair share of 

more plausible notables too. 

The Methodist preacher 

William Seward, who is 

buried in the churchyard at 

Cusop, was reputedly stoned 

to death on Black Lion 

Green in 1740, although 

it is more likely that he 

died there from wounds 

inflicted before he reached 

.i . tv, \ti~4. • Edward Wakeling; and Rev. Michael 

the town. The Victorian s 

Reverend Francis Kilvert lived nearby and kept a diary 

that has survived in print to this day, and indicates a 

somewhat un-vicarly obsession with the female form. 

Major Herbert Rowse-Armstrong, a local solicitor, 

was hanged for the murder of his wife Katherine by 

poisoning in 1921, although townspeople still argue 

over his guilt or innocence. And April Ashley, Britain's 

first ever transsexual, lived in Hay before she moved 

to America. 

Michael O'Connor is a long-standing member of the Lewis 
Carroll Society (UK) , who lives in Kent. He published a book in 
September 2006 called From Chaucer to Childish: A Chronological 
Survey of Writers and Artists in the Medway Towns, which contains 
references to Carroll as well as short biographies of many of 
the UK's most famous literary and artistic figures, including 
Dickens, Pepys, Constable, and Dadd. Copies can be obtained 

But the list of the Hay area's interesting 
inhabitants doesn't end there. Twenty years ago, a 
certain Mr. Edward Wakeling purchased a small rural 
cottage a few miles outside the town. As the gentleman 
is one of the world's leading Carrollians, adroitly 
combining the roles of academic researcher, writer, 
editor, lecturer, and collector, it may be instructive to 
the rest of us who love Carroll to take a look at one 
day in his life. That day is September 2nd, 2006. 

First of all, a little history. Once upon a time, Mr. 
Wakeling was gainfully employed by the British De- 
partment for Edu- 
cation, and lived 
for the most part 
in a town north of 
London because 
that's where all the 
education was in 
those dark days. 
But whenever he 
could, he sneaked 
away to his second 
home in Hereford- 
shire and worked 
on extending and 
developing the 
building and the 
land surrounding 
Vlne it until the locals 

ceased calling it Yew Tree Cottage and started refer- 
ring to it as Yew Tree Castle. 

When he had had shelves and filing cabinets 
installed in every nook and cranny of the by then 
rambling residence, Mr. Wakeling moved his 
collection of Carrolliana in there. This collection 
defies description: imagine everything you've ever 
seen related to Carroll, then imagine having several 
copies of most of each item, and then imagine 
that they are all laid out in carefully classified and 
catalogued rows spread throughout a number of snug 
and inviting libraries and studies. If your imagination 
is rich enough, then you will have a pretty accurate 
idea of the Aladdin's Cave Mr. Wakeling has built up 
over the past three decades. 

As all who collect will comprehend, once his 
collection was installed, it was not possible for Mr. 


Wakeling to live apart from it, so he bade farewell to 
the Department for Education and took up full-time 
residence in Yew Tree Cottage. Although a number of 
favored Carroll enthusiasts have had the privilege of 
visiting him there throughout the succeeding years, 
it seems unlikely that he had suffered such a massive 
invasion of them prior to his sixtieth birthday party, 
which took place on the aforementioned Saturday, a 
few days after the actual birthday itself. He had, with 
characteristic benevolence, issued a general invita- 
tion to LCS members to join his family and friends at 
this celebration, and droves of us took him up on it. 

The party itself had been planned to take place 
in the garden — which, in case anyone thought 
Mr. Wakeling confined his whimsical attentions 
to the interior of the house, has tiny Alice figures 
hidden in the beds and plant pots, and features an 
incipient maze which he is growing at the back — but 
the vagaries of British weather prevented us from 
enjoying the open space as much as we would have 
liked. However, being British, Mr. Wakeling had 
cleverly guessed that there was an outside chance 
of climatic inclemency, so had provided more than 
enough alternative covered sites and activities to 
accommodate the diverse attendees. There were 
table games of logic and chance, competitions — 
including one where the aim was to guess the weight 
of Mr. Wakeling holding a home-made cake; when 
the result was announced, Mr. Wakeling averred that 
the cake accounted for some 30 kg of the total — and 
a bookstall, not to mention an endless supply of food 
and drink, augmented by a sizzling barbecue which 
sprang into life as the evening closed in. 

Throughout the day, Mr. Wakeling gave guided 
tours of his collection to those who expressed an 
interest, and it was easy to tell the Carrollians who 
had been round it by the mixed expressions of awe 
and envy which flickered across their faces whenever 
their gazes touched on the Cottage. To rub salt into 
the wounds, Mr. Wakeling then led everyone to the 
local community hall, where he went into infuriating 
detail about some of the rarer collectables he had 
accidentally stumbled across whilst minding his own 

business, which left me with the (perhaps slightly 
inaccurate) impression that he spent his life being 
approached by strange people in the street who thrust 
into his hands signed first editions and asked only 
a few pence in return. With rare prescience, Mark 
Richards and his fellow LCS committee members 
seemed to have realized the possibility of a lynching 
occurring at this point, and eased the tension by 
promptly holding an auction of Carrolliana, which 
enabled some of us to augment our own collections 
and thus end the day in dreams of a Yew Tree Cottage 
full of treasures of our very own. 

Although I set out to recount only one day in 
his life, it would be unforgivable not to mention 
that Mr. Wakeling's birthday celebrations actually 
culminated the following morning, where a number 
of us (reputedly 42!) had the pleasure of attending 
a beautiful and moving memorial service to Lewis 
Carroll at the Maesyronnen Chapel in the Welsh hills, 
led by the much loved Carrollian, Reverend Michael 
Vine, who came out of retirement for this event. 

Hay-on-Wye — where, incidentally, several of 
the booksellers I spoke to immediately knew him 
by name — is not the only place in Mr. Wakeling's 
vicinity which would be of interest to Carrollians. 
Twelve miles away from his home stands The Old 
Vicarage, Vowchurch, where Skeffington Dodgson 
lived between 1895 and 1910; he is buried with his 
wife in the nearby church of St Bartholemew's. Inside 
the church is a small exhibition put together by — you 
guessed it — Mr. Wakeling. 

Edward's tireless interest in and enthusiasm for 
every aspect of Carroll's life and work, and his equally 
sedulous efforts to raise the author in the public 
consciousness are an inspiration to all of us, I am 
sure, who share his interest but sadly lack his single- 
minded dedication. It was an honor to share one day 
of such a gratifying life. 

Some photos of the event are on Wakeling's Web site, www. A most amusing account of a year 
spent in Hay-on-Wye is Sixpence House: Lost in a 
Town of Books by Paul Collins (Bloomsbury, 2003). 


Carrollian Notes 


"The book chosen for All Pikes 
Peak Reads this year is the three- 
part book that includes Alice's Ad- 
ventures in Wonderland, Through the 
Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found 
There, a classic work written by 
Lewis Carroll, that has been read 
and discussed by millions of read- 
ers since its publication in 1865." 
- PPCC ( Pikes Peak Community 
College) E-news, September 25, 

Lord Kir of Or. Book One in the 
Return to Wonderland series. Doro- 
thy Abigail Osborne can't stand 
another minute in her small 
Kansas town, where the men are 
either too old, too young, or too 
backwoods. ... A tornado barrels 
through her home, snatching up 
Abby and her Irish Wolfhound, 
too. When Abby wakes, she's sure 
she's dreaming. Not only is she not 
in Kansas anymore, she's on ... an 
enchanting planet filled with sexy 
men more than willing to make all 
her erotic dreams come true. 

Return to "Wonderland'"?? 

"Language is worth a thousand 
pounds a year." — misquote from 
Looking-Glass in Alice to the Light- 
house: Radical Experiments in Art 
by Juliet Dusinberre (St. Martin's 
Press, 1999, p. 181, revised from a 
1987 publication). 

It 's "a thousand pounds a word, " of 
course. Perhaps her Freudian slip has 
to do with the salaries of "radical" 
linguistics professors. 


A fine ALS from C. L. Dodgson to 
Winnie MacDonald was offered 
for sale on eBay. Trouble is, it was 
stolen from Yale's Beinecke Rare 
Book & Manuscript Library, and 
was recognized by a friend of the 
Yale librarian in March of this year. 
The stolen letter was written to 
Winifred "Winnie" MacDonald, by 
then a grown woman, in 1890 (23 
August) to thank her for sending a 
photograph of herself in costume. 
Winnie is believed to have been in- 
strumental in persuading Dodgson 
to publish Alice's Adventures under 
Ground (after revision and a title 
change, of course). Yale acquired 
that letter, along with 25 others 
from Dodgson, in 1971 when it 
purchased the papers of her father, 
Scottish writer George MacDonald. 
A report of the theft and a bit of 
background garnered from inter- 
views with Morton Cohen and the 
present writer was published in 
the Hartford Courant on November 


When using live, trained Egyptian 
fruit bats proved impractical for 
the 2005 Warner Brothers film 
Batman Begins, The Moving Pic- 
ture Company (MPC) used digital 
scans to create a computer-gener- 
ated bat, multiplied and varied to 
produce clouds of bats. 

"Swarming scenes made use 
of MPC's proprietary Artificial 
Life Crowd Engine, ALICE, de- 
veloped for crowd simulations in 
Troy and further used in Alexander 
and Kingdom of Heaven. 'Whereas 
ALICE had previously sampled 
motion capture for horses and 
soldiers,' commented [Rudi] 
Holzapfel, 'we used 3D roto of 
the [test footage of the trained 
bats] , as well as footage we shot 
at a bat sanctuary, to build a mo- 
tion library of clips — bats landing, 
taking off, roosting, flying straight, 
flying in a curve, accelerating, 
diving.' Animators then used lidar 
geometry of sets to define flight 
paths through scenes, describing 
sometimes as many as a dozen 
'cords' of action. ALICE popu- 
lated cords with bats and sampled 
motion clips, blending one style of 
behavior to the next, and applied 
physical stimuli of wind that buf- 
feted the flock." -Joe Fordham, 
"Starting Over," Cinefex Number 
103 (October 2005), p. 108. 



you are: 
old father william? 

The great controversy over who 
wrote the Alice books has now 
been blessed with another candi- 
date. They weren't, as has been 
suggested, written by Queen 
Victoria or Mark Twain — now it 
can be revealed: it was William 
Shakespeare. I am presuming this 
after attending a mostly delightful 
performance of Alice in Wonderland 
by the redoubtable Marin Shake- 
speare Company. In fact, after the 
matinee (seen August 13), many 
of the actors had to turn around 
to do King Lear that very evening. 

The "mostly" adverb above re- 
fers only to the length — at an hour 
and 45 minutes with one intermis- 
sion, it got somewhat tedious in 
sections, particularly for the kids 
(one of whom, Martin, age almost 
five, was stationed at my side) . 
Outside of a few liberties in the 
frame story and the interpolation 
of "Jabberwocky," the script (ad- 
aptation and direction by Lesley 
Schisgall Currier) was generally 
faithful to the text, yet allowed 
the actors a much appreciated 
bit of leeway in improvising a few 
scenes, some involving bits of busi- 
ness amidst the audience, mainly 
composed of children and their 
families. On the stage were much 
high spirits, a few in-jokes about 
Lear, a Beckettian ramble about 
German art poetry, and other bits 
of foolery. 

Considering the limitations of 
an outdoor venue (Forest Mead- 
ows Amphitheatre of Dominican 
University in San Rafael, Cali- 
fornia), amusing characters and 
spirited acting, along with mime, 
acrobatics, slapstick, costumes, 
ingenuity, sound effects, and a 
"Greek chorus" overshadowed 
the lack of props and theatrical 
effects. The small cast made for 
a few anomalies (a Fish Footman 
but no Frog, a Mock Turtle with- 
out a Gryphon). 

The cast was extraordinary, 
Shakespearean "ACT'-ors"on a bit 
of a holiday. "Alice" herself was 
dazzling — Hanna Rose Kornfeld, a 
twelve-} ear-old phenomenon who 
acts, sings, dances, and does acro- 
batics, all with impeccable comic 
timing. Other particularly out- 
standing performances were Mat- 
thew Henerson as the Duchess (et 
al.), Darren Bridgett's hysterical 
Hatter and French Mouse, and the 
Cheshire Cat, who somehow man- 
aged to make just her amazingly 
wide grin visible in broad day- 
light — perhaps that she was played 
by a slinky, feline singing actress 
named "Cat" (Thompson) added 
to the effect. The only false notes 
were provided by Mary Knoll, who 
played Lorina and the Queen of 
Hearts as amped-up versions of 
Phyllis Diller. A gentle Dodgson 
(Michael Wiles) was omnipresent 
as narrator, occasional character, 
and pianist. 

Whether it was penned by "Fa- 
ther William" Shakespeare, written 
by Lewis Carroll, or improvised by 
some brilliant comic actors, a fine 
time was had by all. 


The Henry Benyon Crichton Pho- 
tograph Album, which comprises 
six photographs (including a 
self-portrait) that are definitively 
known to be by Dodgson and 
eight that are possibly-to-prob- 
ably by him, according to Edward 
Wakeling, is for sale for £16,500 
(less 10%). 

Henry Benyon Crichton (1835- 
1889) matriculated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, in 1854, became 
acquainted with Dodgson, and was 
either given — or more likely pur- 
chased — some of his photographs 
for this album. Dr. Jeffrey Stern; 
Little Hall, Heslington, York, YO10 
5EB, England, UK; 44+(0) 1904 
41371 l;jeffrey@sternj. demon. 


Joel Birenbaum 

I can't help it; I'm at it again. I've 
embarked on another impossible 
Alice project, and with your help 
I will succeed. My goal is to create 
the best Alice-collectible resource 
on the Internet. I've started an 
Alice in Wonderland Collectors 
Network group on squirl contain- 
ing images of items from my col- 
lection, and images of items I wish 
were in my collection. The idea is 
for a collector to take responsibil- 
ity for one category of collectibles 
and populate it with images of 
items from his or her (or others') 
collections. The result would be 
an inventory of all Alice collect- 
ibles in the world. The more likely 
possibility is that we will create a 
neighborhood where Alice collec- 
tors can post their collections and 
share their thoughts. An account 
on squirl is free for up to 200 

I admit that when I started the 
Collectors Network years ago, it was 
primarily as a means to find more 
Alice things to add to my collec- 
tion, and only secondarily to pro- 
vide a forum for collectors to share 
information about what we knew 
best. Now, twenty years later, it 
turns out that I was truly insightful. 
As many people know, I have 
been talking about writing a book 
on collecting Alice for some time 
now. I have even started to write 
a few times, but the task is monu- 
mental and always defeats me in 
the early stages. I had started again 
on my Sisyphus imitation, pushing 
that rock up the mountain, when I 
received an e-mail from a marketer 
for squirl. I know, there is no 
squirrel in Alice, but I didn't name 
the service. 

Serendipity smiled on me that 
day. I had no particular interest 
in placing my collection online, 
since I am not one to search out 


accolades for the magnificent, 
multifaceted collection that I have 
brought together out of sheer will 
and determination. It only took 
me a few minutes to recognize 
that this was the answer to all of 
my problems. This was my book. 
If a picture is worth a thousand 
words, then thousands of pictures 
must be worth . . . well you do the 
math, squirl has provided me 
with a tool to automatically pull 
huge rocks up mountains. All that 
was required of me was to start the 
rock moving in the right direction. 
Enough mythology, let's move on 
to reality. 

The project has begun. A core 
group of contributors has already 
been assembled, and a structure is 
in place. I may find that depend- 
ing on collectors to interact in a 
defined manner is akin to a mad 
Hatter trying to control the path 
of a glob of mercury, but being 
an optimist (I hear that snicker- 
ing) , I am sure it can be done. The 
twenty-year-old vision of the Alice 
in Wonderland Collectors Network 
can finally be realized, and the 
beauty of it is that everyone can 
contribute. Some can upload mas- 
sive numbers of images, some can 
upload a few, some with less tech- 
nical prowess can send in hard- 
copy photos to be scanned in, and 
others can view the results and add 
information to item descriptions. 

You can see the progress to 
date at 
show/5 and contact me with ques- 
tions and suggestions at 


Armelle Futterman 

The Salon du Livre Jeunesse 06 
(Salon of Children's and Juvenile 
Literature), organized by the 
Centre de Promotion du Livre 
Jeunesse, took place at Montreuil, 
outside Paris, in November. Open 
to the public, the salon presented 
recent offerings from publish- 
ers, and exhibitions on this year's 
themes, Alice in Wonderland and 
Peter Pan. One exhibit, Figures- 
futur, highlighted the works of 
forty-eight emerging illustrators, 
chosen by a panel of eight profes- 
sionals from over a thousand sub- 
missions from all over the world. 
The eight award recipients' works 
are on view on the Salon's Web 
si te , h ttp : / / salon-livre-presse-j eu-, and will be 
published in the Salon's catalogue. 
Another exhibit, Tete-a-tete et autres 
jeux de mirroir, presented the works 
of three guest illustrators on the 
subjects of traveling, growing, and 
games in the two books. 


In Martin Kemp's Visualizations: 
The Nature Book of Art and Science 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: Uni- 
versity of California Press, 2000), 
he describes (pp. 122-23) the 
collaborative effort in the fifties 
and sixties to reveal the polyhedral 
structure of viruses. Negative stain- 
ing and improved X-rays, along 
with three-dimensional model 
building, were major factors. Jo 
Wildy, widow of Peter Wildy (co- 
discoverer in 1960 of the struc- 
ture of the herpes simplex virus) , 
recalled that the original model 
"was made with quantities of cor- 
rugated card-board, Polyfilla, and 
wire, and occupied the dining 
room table, dresser, floor, and any 
other horizontal surface for weeks 
as the entire family grappled with 
its complications." As part of their 
contribution to the Cold Spring 
Harbor Symposium in 1962, Wildy 
and Douglas Watson described the 

You boil it with sawdust: you 

coat it with glue: 
You condense it with locusts 

and tape: 
Still keeping one principle 

object in view — 
To preserve its symmetrical 




Online magazine on 
May 25, 2006, posted a gallery of 
faux "pulp fiction" book jackets 
for classics from The Iliad to 
Animal Farm. "Classic pulp covers 
are glorious and garish, rich with 
saturated color and sexual innu- 
endo." Their first was, of course, 
Alice in Wonderland, with a lurid 
chartreuse cover portraying a 
trashy, booted blonde, hands sus- 
piciously placed, with the tagline 
"One girl's drug-induced descent 
into dreamland debauchery." 

*5 *nd . 

One girl's drug-Induced descent 
into dreamland debauchery! 


John Hadden has discovered a 
historical "Jabberwocky" parody 
on the political turmoil in India, 
written in 1946 by Field Marshal 
Sir Archibald Percival Wavell. It 
is mentioned in the concluding 
volume of John (now Jan) Morris' 
history of the British Empire (Fare- 
well the Trumpets, 1978), which led 
Hadden to Wavell's The Viceroy's 
Journal (1973, Penderel Moon, 
ed.), which contains the entire 
poem ("Jabberweeks," beginning 
"Twas grillig and the Congree- 
lites") and a Humpty Dumpty- 
esque explication of the words 
("Well, grillig is in the hot-weather 
at Delhi, when everyone's brains 
are grilled...") under the entry for 
July 1, 1946. 



Lost Girls (Top Shelf, 2006) is 
self-described as pornography, a 
hardcore hardcover graphic novel 
depicting the sexual adventures 
of three fictional characters, 
namely Alice, Dorothy (of Oz), 
and Wendy (from Peter Pan), who 
meet as adults in an expensive 
resort hotel in Austria, on the 
eve of World War I, to describe 
and share some of their erotic 
adventures. The story is by comic 
legend Alan Moore and drawn by 
his partner in life and art, Melinda 
Gebbie. The youthful adventures 
of the heroines (their connections 
to their literary classics are subtly 
drawn) take their "journeys" as 
sexual awakenings. 

The first six chapters were 
initially published in the Taboo 
anthology magazine (#s 5-7) in 
1991-92 and reprinted by Kitchen 
Sink Press in 1995-96. Moore 
and Gebbie have significantly 
expanded the earlier stories for 
this publication. Three 112-page, 
oversized (9~xl2~) clothbound 
volumes, each wrapped in a dust 
jacket, sealed and shrink-wrapped 
in a slipcase: $75 regular or $150 
limited, signed edition. 

Top Shelf Productions is with- 
holding United Kingdom and 
European Union distribution until 
the end of 2007, when the Peter 
Pan copyrights in the UK and EU 
expire. A special UK First Edition 
will be released on 1 January 2008. 

"People who like this sort of 
thing will find this is the sort of 
thing they like." 


Phantoms of the Brain: Probing 
the Mysteries of the Human Mind 

V. S. Ramachandran and Sandra 
Blakeslee (William Morrow, 1998). 

Devra Kunin 

Neurobiologist Ramachandran 
discusses the effects of neurologi- 
cal disorders on people's behavior 
and beliefs. Chapter 6, "Through 
the Looking Glass," concerns his 
attempt to use mirrors to help 
victims of right-brain stroke who 
are suffering from hemineglect — a 
condition that makes one unaware 
of anything on the left, including 
the left side of one's own body. Ra- 
machandran found that patients 
could see the reflection of an 
object on their left when a mirror 
was held in front of them, but that, 
when asked to pick up the object, 
they would attempt to reach into 
the mirror for it, rather than reach 
to their left — even though they 
were aware that they were looking 
at a mirror. 

We decided to give a name 
to [this] condition "mirror 
agnosia" or "the looking 
glass syndrome" in honor 
of Lewis Carroll. Indeed, 
Lewis Carroll is known 
to have suffered from 
migraine attacks caused 
by arterial spasms. If they 
affected his right parietal 
lobe, he may have suffered 
momentary confusion with 
mirrors that might not only 
have inspired him to write 
Through the Looking-glass 
but may help explain his 
general obsession with mir- 
rors, mirror writing and 
left-right reversal. One won- 
ders whether Leonardo da 
Vinci's preoccupation with 
left-right reversed writing 
had a similar origin. 

Yes, it's another attempt to 
diagnose Carroll posthumously. 
Don't you love the way something 
becomes an "obsession" as soon as 
it's of interest to the writer? What 


about his "obsession" with acros- 
tics, with puns, codes, game rules, 
voting methods, etc., none of 
which have much to do with mir- 
rors? If we need a neurobiological 
explanation for one of his myriad 
interests, why not the rest? Alas, 
doctors aren't as logical as one 
would like to believe. The book's 
not bad, though. 

Lewis Carroll & the Victorian Stage: 
Theatricals in a Quiet Life 
by Richard Foulkes 
(Ashgate, 2005, $90) 

Daniel Singer 

Two of my favorite subjects — Lewis 
Carroll and nineteenth-century 
English theater — are examined 
with scholarly zeal in Richard 
Foulkes' treatise. The controver- 
sial nature of theater's perceived 
immorality brings a certain excite- 
ment to the study of the subject — 
the Rev. Mr. Dodgson was some- 
thing of a rebel: a clergyman who 
insisted on attending theatricals 
in spite of the condemnation of 
people like Bishop Samuel Wilber- 
force. Dodgson found the theater 
irresistible. While carefully avoid- 
ing plays he considered "vulgar" 
or "coarse," he saw hundreds of 
performances; befriended actors, 
actresses, and playwrights; devel- 
oped a keen ability to critique 
shows; was an advocate for the 
encouragement and protection 
of child-actors; contributed to the 
translation of his Alice stories to 
the stage; occasionally used a dra- 
matic format when writing; relied 
on his advanced sense of visual 
drama when posing photographic 
subjects; considered authoring at 
least one original play; and was, 
in his youth, a performer himself 
with the aid of a puppet theater 
and a large family of (presumably) 
enthusiastic audience members. 

Dodgson was passionate about 
theater-going despite the fact that 
it was not an era of remarkable 
new plays. A vast number of forget- 
table melodramas, "pantomimes," 
and contemporary comedies fol- 

lowed the legacy of Shakespeare 
and the Restoration playwrights — 
note how few mid-nineteenth-cen- 
tury plays are included in classical 
repertories today. How many of us 
have seen a revival of Tom Taylor's 
huge hit Ticket-of-Leave Man, or 
even read it? Victorian playwrights 
may not have secured a place in 
posterity (save for W. S. Gilbert 
and the generation of "modern" 
playwrights — Ibsen, Shaw, Wilde, 
etc. — who emerged in the 1890s), 
but audiences were nevertheless 
placated with popular humor, 
sentimentality, religious dramatiza- 
tions, and the odd splash of spec- 
tacle. In addition, each generation 
produces stellar talent that evokes 
enthusiasm from fans. The spell- 
binding magic of good theater 
can be intoxicating and addictive: 
it motivates theater-goers to buy 
tickets in hopes of experiencing 
the thrill of another magical expe- 
rience — often to have their hopes 
dashed by mediocre actors, disap- 
pointing scripts, and/or lackluster 
productions. Dodgson was both 
picky and critical, and his opinions 
of plays and performers are well 
documented in his journals and 

Mr. Foulkes' exploration of the 
subject is chock-a-block with care- 
fully researched details, so much 
so that it reads like a research 
project rather than a book to be 
enjoyed by an average reader. As 
I must place myself in this cat- 
egory — no college degree here — I 
found the book to be somewhat 
dry. The author's method seems 
to be one of gathering as many 
references as possible from dia- 
ries, letters, and various published 
sources and then stringing the ref- 
erences together with just enough 
explanation to create a sensible 
text. The result tends to be choppy 
and difficult to read. Most points 
cry out to be expanded upon. 
When one considers how rich a 
subject it is, it's astonishing how 
quickly the author mentions 
something and then zips onward 
without taking the time to explore 

the topic at hand more fully. I 
expected to be immersed in the 
world of Victorian theater, and to 
have Dodgson's experience of it 
brought to life; instead, I felt as 
if I were reading through a tall 
stack of three-by-five index cards — 
much of which conveyed informa- 
tion with which Carroll enthusiasts 
are already familiar. 

Compare this with the expe- 
rience of reading Lewis Carroll, 
Photographer (Wakeling & Taylor, 
Princeton, 2002), which so thor- 
oughly explains the art of nine- 
teenth-century photography and 
Dodgson's participation in it that, 
by the end, you feel you could jolly 
well expose and develop a glass 
plate yourself — the materials were 
so close at hand, I could almost 
smell the collodion. While I en- 
deavor to critique things based on 
their merits rather than my own 
expectations, it's my opinion that 
a book that discusses four decades 
of London theater-going without 
making you feel like you're there 
hardly seems worth publishing. 

By far the most original and 
interesting chapter — the last 
one, entitled "Carroll at the The- 
ater" — groups Dodgson's play- 
going experiences by venue, so 
that the character of each theater 
is explored during the period in 
question (1855-97). By examining 
the history, architecture, manage- 
ment, and style of each playhouse, 
alongside Dodgson's specific hab- 
its and comments, one gets a fair 
impression of London's "scene" of 
the era. Again, however, the text 
seems woefully underwritten, and 
I found myself wishing, with every 
paragraph, for the inclusion of 
more pictures. 

The book itself, priced at a 
breathtaking $89.95, is neither 
lengthy nor lavish. There are only 
fourteen illustrations, nowhere 
near enough to convey the world 
of visual interest the subject de- 
mands. And in my humble opin- 
ion, it is disastrous to relentlessly 
quote sources and page numbers 
in parentheses, following refer- 


ences, instead of simply using tiny, 
unobtrusive numbers to refer- 
ence footnotes at the end of the 
chapter, which Foulkes does only 
sparingly. I found it virtually im- 
possible to make sense of entire 
paragraphs while trying to ignore 
the interruptions of parenthetical 

One feels that the scholarly Mr. 
Foulkes was being so careful to 
remain within the realm of prov- 
able fact that he wrote as little 
original text as possible — when 
what was needed was a more thor- 
ough context for the quotations. 
While it is convenient to have so 
much research compiled in such 
a handy, well-organized format, 
I would much rather have had a 
book that truly celebrates what 
Dodgson loved so much about the 
Victorian stage, instead of one that 
simply chronicles the many written 
references to it. 



All the Snarks: The Illustrated Edi- 
tions, an Exploration and a Check 
List by Selwyn Goodacre in a 
limited edition (220 copies, case- 
bound, signed and numbered) . 
Apx. 13~x8", 48 pp. Goodacre's 

magnificent research is perfectly 
complemented by this extraordi- 
narily handsome printing, replete 
with illustrations, many in color. 
Standard copies are £56; unbound 
£46; or in a slipcase with the next 
item, £134. Inky Parrot Press, The 
Foundry, Church Hanborough, 
Oxford ox29 8ab, U.K.; +01993 
881260; +01993 883080 fax;; dennis® A free prospec- 
tus can also be requested. 


John Vernon Lord's remarkably 
perceptive, highly amusing, and 
magnificently rendered illustra- 
tions from Artists' Choice Edi- 
tions, with a foreword and after- 
word by the artist: 220 standard 
copies at £68; 31 special copies, 
bound quarter-leather with three 
hand-colored signed prints, £158; 
five "exemplaries" with a special 
binding £480; unbound £56; or 
£134 packaged with the above 
item (see above for contact or 
ordering information). Highest 
possible recommendation! 


Yuri Shtapakov's The Hunting of 
theSnark (St. Petersburg, 2000), 
quarto portfolio; 49 ff. One of two 
copies. Handwritten, with hand- 
colored drypoint engravings, "all 
of which coalesces in a charming, 
peculiar aesthetic." Shtapakov has 
shown mainly in Europe and Rus- 
sia, and has received critical recog- 
nition for his miniature paintings. 
Very fine, housed in original fold- 
ing case of multicolored leather 
onlays, with an inset featuring 
one of the drypoint engravings on 
each panel. $5,800 from Kendra 

John Vernon Lord 

Yuri Shtapakov 

S. Slaughter, Bromer Booksellers, 
607 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 
02116;; www. 


The Annotated Hunting of the Snark: 
The Definitive Edition by Martin 
Gardner with an introduction by 
Adam Gopnik 
W.W. Norton: 156 pp., $28 

Sarah Adams 

Martin Gardner does it again! 
The Annotated Hunting of the Snark: 
The Definitive Edition provides 
everything a reader, whether for 
the first or fiftieth time, of the 


Snark needs to know. It is based on 
Gardner's The Annotated Snark of 
1962 and the Centennial Edition of 
1981, with greatly expanded anno- 
tations and additional illustrations 
from Peter Newell (first published 
in 1901). 

In addition to the annotated 
text poem, The Definitive Edition 
includes reminiscences of work- 
ing with Carroll by Henry Holiday, 
and Carroll's An Easter Greeting, 
the text of the pamphlet included 
in the first editions of the Snark. 
Adam Gopnik of the New Yorker 
contributes an introduction, and 
Selwyn Goodacre's "The Listing of 
the Snark" encompasses editions, 
translations, anthologies, adapta- 
tions, and miscellaneous "candle- 
ends." Other new additions are 
"Hunting the Snark on the Web" 
and a listing of Snark Clubs, while 
"A Commentary on the Snark" 
by Snarkophilus Snobbs (F. C. S. 
Schiller) and "Fit the Seven-and-a- 
halfth: The Clue" by J. A. Lindon 
are rightly included from the ear- 
lier editions. 

Gardner's annotations are now 
in a dark red type (matching the 
cover), which makes it easier to 
visually focus on the text of the 
Snark. Perhaps the book's only 
fault, and a minor one at that, is 
that the pictures are darker and 

less clear, causing details to fade 
into the shading. 

Presenting commentary and 
opinions from many critics and 
readers inevitably means the in- 
clusion of myriad explanations 
of what the hunt, the Snark, and, 
of course, the Boojum repre- 
sent — apparently the first rule for 
any analysis of The Hunting of the 
Snark is that the critic must reveal 
the heretofore undeciphered 
real meaning of the poem. But 
Gardner juggles these explana- 
tions, and even presents his own, 
with aplomb. 


Donald Kerr 

Hand-setting and printing Lewis 
Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark 
was the 2006 project for the an- 
nual Printer-in-Residence pro- 
gram at the University of Otago, 
Dunedin, New Zealand. Tara 
McLeod, owner-operator of the 
Auckland-based Pear Tree Press 
and printer at The Holloway Press 
at University of Auckland, was 
commissioned to come down to 
Dunedin for a five-week period 
and complete the printing. After 
much discussion, and in consider- 
ation of our limited resources, we 
decided to limit the issue to 101 
copies only. 

The Snarkopack 

David Elliot, a local book il- 
lustrator and keen Carrollian, was 
keen to do the characters in the 
Snark poem. And in order to trans- 
fer his images on to solar plates 
and then Zerkall paper, local 
printmakers Inge Doesburg, Jenna 
Packer, and Kathryn Madill were 
asked to be technicians. 

Over August and September 
work began, and on completion 
and selective promotion, the 
Snarkopack sold out. And it is 
truly a package, containing the 
text hand-set on Zerkall paper, an 
original, randomly selected solar 
plate etching by Elliot, a book- 
mark, a rules sheet, three sheets 
containing the twelve characters 
reduced to playing card size, and 
a sheet containing "feet" should 
buyers wish to pop the cards out 
and stand them up. All these com- 
ponents are enclosed in a black 
buckram folder. Everything is 
wrapped up with black shoelace. 

The publication was a collab- 
orative affair. There was Elliot the 
image creator, McLeod the printer, 
Doesburg, Madill, and Packer as 
etching wizards, the University 
bindery who produced the folders, 
Wickliffe Press, a local commercial 
firm who scanned and reduced the 
Snark card images, the Dunedin 
Public bindery team who sewed the 
text gatherings, and a small army 
of volunteers from the University 
Library who helped collate, rip 
paper, distribute type, and proof 
the draft pages. 

This is not to say that there 
were no hiccups, of which three 
examples will suffice. Two days 
before Tara arrived, proofing was 
done on our new Garamond (our 
working type) and it was found 
there were no "u"s in the packets. 
A quick e-mail to the foundry 
helped rectify this, but in the 
interim we joked about turning 
our "n"s upside down. And then 
there was the proofing of each 
page as it was printed. At the end 
of the first week, as I was dissing 
type from a completed double-side 
sheet of text, Tara said: "Often 

when distributing type, you no- 
tice small blemishes that are not 
picked up on the printed sheet." 
I looked at the lines I was distril> 
uting and said: "Oh you mean 
'the the Butcher.'" Silence. Panic. 
Silence. Read. Check. Panic. Si- 
lence. Swearing! And there it was: 
a great gaping "the the" mistake 
that we had missed. This was a 
tough lesson learned. Conse- 
quently, each new draft page was 
whisked around the entire refer- 
ence department for proofing. 
The offending sheets have been 
kept and are now flourished in 
front of English, Design, and Art 
History students. They accompany 
mutterings about the art of book- 
making, notions of Delete buttons 
and automatic font changes with 
a mouse, and the necessary hard 
graft that is part and parcel of 
the printer's world. And finally, 
it seemed like an endless chore 
to obtain 140 meters of the right 
sort of shoelace at the right price. 
There was no stock in New Zea- 
land and it had to be ordered 
from Australia. The usual long 
wait, constant phone calls, includ- 
ing an out-sourced toll-free num- 
ber to Melbourne, finally secured 
the desired amount. A gleeful time 
was had cutting the shoelace and 
wrapping each Snarkopack. 

A Wayzgoose was held to cele- 
brate the end of the project. It fea- 
tured all those involved and other 
interested parties; tea and buns 
and thanks all round. A great proj- 
ect; planning has already begun 
for next year's effort. 

Reviewed by Andrew Scllon 
There is much to praise about this 
elegant, unusual, and beautifully 
made edition; it has clearly been 
created with great expertise, and 
love. There are some unusual 
elements that collectors might 
want to note: The poem itself is 
essentially printed in paperback, 
and sits freely with the other loose 
items within the lovely black three- 
fold hardcover wrapping, which 
has a fabulous illustration of the 
ship and the island as its "end- 
papers." The reason for this will 
become clear momentarily. The 
child in me admits to some slight 
disappointment that while each 
copy of the book includes one 
lovely full-sized, signed print of a 
random character, the little char- 
acter "playing cards" are the only 
other illustrations provided, and 
they are separate from the text of 
the poem itself. 

Dr. Donald Kerr of the Univer- 
sity of Otago explained to us that 
this separation of text and images 
was partly necessitated by the five- 
week time constraint for this an- 
nual academic printing project. In 
light of this, illustrator David Elliot 
has come up with an inspired re- 
sponse to necessity: each character 
is rendered alone on his/ (her?) 
own card so that the reader can 
punch out the cards to create 
something of a Snark play set with 
the endpaper tri-fold as a theatri- 
cal backdrop. This is a very clever 
idea — assuming a collector is will- 
ing to dismantle the components 

The Snarkopack, ready for play 

of a $175 limited edition to do it. 1 
might still wish that for a possible 
future trade edition (which we 
should encourage), the wonderful 
illustrations might alsobe included 
full-size in the pages of the book 
itself so that we could better ap- 
preciate the detail of some (for 
instance, it may be my advancing 
years, but I cannot make out the 
beaver's face in my little illustra- 
tion card), or that some other im- 
ages of the characters interacting 
might be placed in the book as a 
complement to the play set — but 
now I trespass in the area of ar- 
tistic choice and license. Perhaps 
as a compromise, a second set of 
character cards might be offered 
for sale to those of us who want to 
keep our editions "mint." 

In any event, no one (not even 
the Barrister or the Snark) could 
dispute the fact that the illustra- 
tions by Mr. Elliot and his team 
of expert engravers and the text 
printing by Tara McLeod and his 
team have been lovingly rendered 
in a unique and first-class produc- 

Afterword: artist David Elliot 
kindly wrote to suggest that own- 
ers of the limited edition who are 
unwilling to pop out their charac- 
ter cards could make color photo- 
copies of the cards on heavyweight 
paper stock, and thereby have the 
best of both worlds: a mint set for 
collecting, and one for acting out 
the drama aloud as Mr. Elliot in- 
tended. A frabjous idea! 

Limited to 101 copies (alas, sold out), 
NZ$250. Contact Donald Kerr, Special 
Collections Librarian, University of 
Otago Library, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, 
New Zealand; +64 3 479-8330; +64 3 
4 79-832 7; donald. kerr@library. otago. David Elliot is investigating the 
possibility of a trade edition. 

The etchings (in an edition of 
42) are available for purchase: the set 
of 12 characters NZ$750; individual 
etchings nz$75-110. All of the solar 
prints can be viewed online at www. and purchased from 
Gillian at 



Alice's Adventures in Wonder- 
land (Sterling, 2005) boasts 
some fine stylized scratch- 
board illustrations by Scott 
McKowen of Canada, and 
a section of questions by 
Arthur Pober, Ed.D., aimed 
at young schoolchildren. 

Alice in Wonderland (Par- 
ragon Press, 2003) actu- 
ally contains both books, 
together with rather un- 
distinguished illustrations 
by June Goulding and the 
blurb on the back that it is "the 
fantastic tale of the dream-like ad- 
ventures of a young girl." Dream- 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
(Penguin/Dial, 2005), with hand- 
some, distinctive color "crackle- 
varnished" illustrations by Alison 
Jay of England. 

Where Did You Change: A Light Look 
at Bathing Machines (Mica, 2006) 
by Mary and David Schaefer is a 
sweetly illustrated look at the phe- 
nomenon, its history, and some 
of the associated products. Nine 
dollars from Mica Publishers, P.O. 
Box 1594, Bethany Beach, DE 

Tatiana Ianovskaia has reissued — 
now in color! — her illustrated The 
Mad Gardener's Song with prefatory 
essays by August A. Imholtz, Jr., 
and Clare Imholtz (Tania Press, 
2006). us$12 for the b/w; us$20 
for the color. Also new is a deck 
of Wonderland playing cards for 
us$40. She has some copies of 
her Wonderland book still avail- 
able for us$15 as well. Postage to 
U.S. is us$2, elsewhere us$3.50.; 25 Black 
Hawk Way, North York, Ontario, 
Canada, M2R 3L5; (416) 650-1871. 

The Yoga of Time Travel: How the 
Mind Can Defeat Time by Fred Alan 
Wolf (Quest Books, 2004) uses the 
White Queen's "living backwards" 
dialogue as a springboard to 
launch into a discussion of memo- 
ries of the future. 

**» '.ill »////// 


The Literary Tourist: Readers and 
Places in Romantic and Victorian 
Britain, by Dr. Nicola J. Watson 
(Palgrave, 2006), is a bit pricey at 
$65, but does mention Our Man. 
However, with Charlie Lovett's 
superior Lewis Carroll's England: An 
Illustrated Guide for the Literary Tour- 
ist (LCS-UK, 1998, $20; KL 58:18) 
available, why bother? 

Ralph Steadman's The Joke's Over, 
an account of his collaborations 
with Hunter S. Thompson, touches 
briefly on his Alice illustrations 
(Harcourt, 2006). 

Disney Comics: The Classics Col- 
lection, Volume 1 (Disney, 2006) 
reprints Disney's "Alice in Wonder- 
land" from Four Color Comics #331 
(1951). In a foil-stamped case, $50. 

Lullaby, Volume 1: Wisdom Seeker and 
Volume 2: Power Grabber (Alias Enter- 
prises) by Ben Avery, Mike S. Miller, 
and Hector Sevilla, collect the first 
eight issues of this adventure story 
comic book featuring Alice and 
other fairy-tale characters. 


An article in National Geographic, 
June 2006, discusses a team of 
mycologists (mushroom special- 
ists) in the Antipathies (Tasmania, 
to be precise), who spend a lot of 
time Under Ground, as they are 
guides at the Hastings Caves State 
Reserve. His name is not Martin, 
rather Jason, Gardner; hers, Alice 

"Euclidean Geometry 
and Physical Space," by 
eminent mathematical 
historian David Rowe in 
the Mathematical Intel- 
ligencer (Vol. 26, 2006) , 
discusses how modern 
Dodgson's mathemati- 
cal thinking is in Euclid 
and His Modern Rivals. 

Issue 9 (Autumn 2006) 
of Illustration magazine 
(UK) has a beautifully 
illustrated article by 
snarkologist Selwyn 
Goodacre and a shorter 
article by Snark illustrator John 
Vernon Lord. Further details at See 
also "Of Books: The Hunting of the 
Snarks: Fit the First" and "Fit the 
Second," p. 37. 


In 2003, in a smaller imitation 
of the Burning Man festival with 
a Wonderland theme, a 25 '-tall 
effigy of the White Rabbit was 
burned to the Jefferson Airplane's 
tune. http://eternal-mysteries. 

Libri Vox, a collection of readings 
of works in the public domain, has 
downloadable .mp3 and .ogg files 
of Wonderland at http://librivox. 

"The Sea Was Wet as Wet Can Be," 
a text story by cartoonist Gahan 
Wilson based on "The Walrus and 
the Carpenter" can be read at 

An interpretive biographical essay 
with a few interesting points and 
a few misstatements can be found 
at whataboutlewiscarroll.blogspot. 

John Wilcock's general essay 

on Carroll from the Ojai Orange #1 

has been posted to 

sum01/p20_sum01.php (see pages 



Icons: A Portrait of England (www. 
alice ) discusses aspects of Alice 
from the sublime to the ridiculous 
(e.g., a hybrid of Alice and Ha- 
niiman the monkey god at www. 
alice/features/meera-chauda) . 

An essay on Carroll, Romanticism, 
and Beckett at www.english- 

Joel Birenbaum's trip through 
the "Alice's Wonderland" exhibit 
in Chicago at http://lewiscarroll. 

A musical version of "Jabber- 
wocky" from Alice Underground 
at http://home.worldnet.att. 

Things disappear in Wonderland, a 
proposed installation in collabora- 
tion with artist Helen Storey. See 

Daina Almario-Kopp's surreal 
images are influenced by Carroll: 

Joseph Sheppard's oil painting 
of Dodgson sitting on a bed sur- 
rounded by some disturbingly 
provocative young girls can be 
seen at 

The online magazine The Looking 
Glass: Neiv Perspectives on Children 's 
Books, Volume 10, Issue 3, prints 
"The Chick-fil-A Alice" by August 
and Clare Imholtz, discussing a 
bowdlerized abridgment pub- 
lished by the fast-food chain, www. 

The phenomenon of YouTube 
certainly deserves mention. Just 
type "Alice" or "Carroll" or "Won- 
derland" into the search box at and a wealth 
of videos awaits. A particularly con- 
troversial one is MorpheusBCN's 
inquiry into The Question. Caveat 

An "annoying storybook map with 
Alice connections" (says Angelica 
Carpenter) can be found at www. 

"Alice in the Looking-glass of Art" 
by John Briggs of Western Con- 
necticut State University, a chapter 
of Leivis Carroll's Lost Quantum 
Diaries, William Shanley, ed. (Ger- 
many: Werner Locher, 1999) is 
available at http://people.wcsu. 
edu/briggsj/Alice.html. The 
book, although written in English, 
in only available in German trans- 
lation at this time, although the 
editor is working on an expanded 
English-language edition. 

The Walrus, an undergraduate 
literary journal of Mills College 
(Oakland, CA), called for Wonder- 
land-themed art for their fiftieth- 
anniversary issue. The journal was 
named after the character in the 
poem. See 

A card game based on the comic 
book (Hatter AT) of the Looking- 
Glass Wars trilogy by Frank Beddor 
(KL 76:40) is now up and running 
at, as is 
a trailer for the U.S. release of the 
first volume and the "soundtrack" 

Dutch artist Nicole Carvajal's 
Carrollian works can be viewed 
id/ 134691. html. 


The October 18-19 program of 
"All Pikes Peak Reads," a month- 
long celebration sponsored by 
Pikes Peak (Colorado) Commu- 
nity College, this year focusing on 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 
included two large-scale puppet 
shows by Razzamataz (one called 
"Alice, we're stuck in a hundred- 
acre wood on the night before 
Christmas and I don't think we're 
in Kansas anymore") and two 
presentations by then LCSNA VP 
Mark Burstein. 

"Lewis Carroll's Diagrammatic 
Logic System as a Proof Method 

for Syllogisms," a lecture by Dr. 
Francine Abeles was delivered at 
York University, Toronto, Canada, 
on May 30, 2006. 

The Children's Literature Associa- 
tion held its 33rd annual interna- 
tional conference June 8-10, 2006, 
in Manhattan Beach, California, a 
suburb of Los Angeles. The event 
was organized by Jackie Stallcup 
from the English Department of 
California State University, North- 
ridge. The conference theme was 
"Transformations," and included 
the talk "Through Juzzles, Down 
Rabbit Holes: Aggression and 
Maturation in Hoban's Trokeville 
and Carroll's Wonderland," by 
Chandra Howard of San Diego 
State University. 

The Oxford Experience 2007 pro- 
gram at Christ Church comprises a 
number of week-long courses cov- 
ering archaeology, the arts, litera- 
ture, and history. Of particular in- 
terest to Carrollians will be "Alice's 
Adventures in Oxford," a series 
of seminars under the tutelage of 
Edward Wakeling. The seminars, 
and an excursion to Binsey and 
Godstow Nunnery, will take place 
on July 15-21. For a copy of the 
brochure or for more information, 
contact The Oxford Experience, 
OUDCE, 1 Wellington Square, 
Oxford, OX1 2JA, UK; phone: +44 
(0)1865 270427; ipoxexp@conted.; 

The Lewis Carroll Academy 
is a Scientology-based school in 
Reseda, California. "These words 
were followed by a very long silence, 
broken only by an occasional exclama- 
tion of 'Hjckrrh!' from the Gryphon, 
and the constant heavy sobbing of the 
Mock Turtle. " 

The first international confer- 
ence of the Children's Literature 
Association - India (CLA1), "The 
Child and the Fantastic: Readings 
in Children's Fantasy Literature," 
to be held March 26-28, 2007, 
at Trichur Towers Hotel, Thris- 
sur, Kerala, Southern India, will 


include a performance of Alice 
in Wonderland transformed into 
the dance-drama art form of 
Kathakali, specific to Kerala. 


Draw Me a Story: A Century of 
Children 's Book Illustration at San 
Francisco's Cartoon Art Museum 
(July '06-January '07) includes 
the original artwork of a page 
from The Pogo Peek-a-Book by Walt 
Kelly entitled "Glory," depicting 
Humpty Dumpty expounding on 
the word for Alice. A panel dis- 
cussion scheduled for December 
12 will include a talk on Carroll's 
influence on Kelly. 

Bopping around Rymill Park 
in Adelaide, Australia, one will 
encounter a nice statue of Alice 
on a base displaying many of the 

A new Czech Centre has recently 
opened in Tokyo, at the Czech 
Republic's embassy. The center 
was launched with an exhibition 
of collages by Jan Svankmajer that 
will be used as illustrations to a 
new Japanese edition of Alice in 

In the girls' department of the 
Nordstrom department store 
in San Francisco, Alice-themed 
clothes were featured in its 
November-December holiday 


Circus Chimera, a second-rate 
traveling circus, had a Wonderland 
theme for the first part of its 2006 
season. Aside from a few (Disney- 
influenced) costumes and an oc- 
casional nod to the story, it didn't 
have much to recommend it. See 

Alice Through the Subway System, "a 
new play that puts a fresh urban 
spin on the classic characters . . . 
the Cheshire Rat to the Mad Rap- 
per ... witness a trip through the 
New York City underground that 
rocks and rolls. Rated PG-13 for 

language, drug content and adult 
themes." The Real Theater Com- 
pany at Lucky Cheng's Voodoo 
Lounge, New York City, October 


Alice in Wonderland, an opera by 
Peter Westergaard, was presented 
by the Center for Contemporary 
Opera at the Leonard Nimoy 
Thalia Theater at Symphony Space 
in New York City on Monday, June 
19, in a partially staged reading. 
"Westergaard admits that Alice is 
'a somewhat unusual opera. It's 
not that there are all those talking 
birds and animals. They're to be 
found in plenty of other operas, 
including some great ones. It's 
that there's no orchestra.' Indeed, 
all the sounds in the opera are 
produced by seven singers — one 
who portrays Alice and six others 
who not only portray all thirty-five 
of the other characters on stage, 
but [do so] by using nonsense syl- 
lables, mouth sounds, and a small 
collection of easy-to-play percus- 
sion instruments and sound effects 
offstage, spin[ning] an accompa- 
nying web of notes and noises." 
Reviewed by Anthony Tommasini 
in The New York Times, ]\\ne 21, 
2006, who said the chorus "often 
sounded like some curious mix 
of Gesualdo madrigals and Ligeti 

The Denver Public Library's 2006 
Booklovers' Ball had a Wonder- 
land theme. 

In Alice (squared): A Multimedia 
Wonderland, playing at the Sanford 
Meisner Theater in New York 
in September, "a young woman 
tries to find her identity and the 
choices that shape that identity in 
the assimilated world of the MTV 
Generation; featuring music vid- 
eos, animation, and popular songs 
from the '80s and '90s." 

Lobster Alice, a revival of the play by 
Kira Obolensky (KLs 63:22, 69:25, 
73:45) set during Dali's tenure 
at the Disney Studios during the 
making of Alice in Wonderland, 
played at the Blank Theatre Com- 
pany in Hollywood July through 

September, with Noah (ER) Wyle 
as Dalf and Nicholas Brendon 
( Bufjy the Vampire Slayer) as an 

Lookingglass Alice, described as 
"muscular, acrobatic, percussive 
and dizzyingly playful," adapted 
and directed by David Catlin, will 
play at the McCarter Theatre in 
Princeton NJ throughout January 


A painting by Australian Charles 
Blackman sold for au$1.02 mil- 
lion at Sotheby's in Melbourne 
on November 21. The three- 
meter-wide work, long thought 
to be lost, was discovered in a 
private Perth collection after a 
plea by the National Gallery of 
Victoria in May. Alice's Journey is 
the centerpiece of the Blackman 
series called Alice in Wonderland, 
which was recently exhibited at 
the NGV, marking the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the works. Blackman 
painted the 46 paintings over a 
12-month period in 1956. 


The title characters in The Unholy 
Three (1925), a surreal, expres- 
sionist crime drama film directed 
by Tod Browning, are Professor 
Echo (Lon Chaney) , Hercules 
(Victor McLaglen), and a cigar- 
smoking, baby-clothes-wearing 
midget named Tweedledee (Harry 
Earles). Not a ~dum in sight. It 
was screened at the San Francisco 
Silent Film Festival in July. 

In Mexican director Guillermo del 
Toro's Spanish-language film El 
Laberinto del Fauno, or Pan 's Laby- 
rinth, a "young girl enters a con- 
fusing and frightening new world 
where every corner might hide 
something wondrous, or lurking 
beasts ready to pounce." It is de- 
scribed as a political fairy tale with 
Carrollian influences. 

Mimzy, with The Office star Rainn 
Wilson, a family feature from New 
Line Cinema set to open soon, 


tells the story of two siblings who, 
after discovering a box of toys sent 
from the future, begin developing 
some remarkable talents and find 
themselves drawn into a unique 
world. It's based on the sci-fi short 
story "Mimsy Were the Borogoves" 
(1943), by Henry Kuttner and 
C. L. Moore (writing as Lewis 

Chats perches (2004), or The Case of 
the Grinning Cat, a documentary 
movie about a mysterious yellow 
cat that was omnipresent in Paris 
for a spell, has also been shown on 
American television. 


A piece of Goth manga, Bizenghast, 
Volume 2 (TokyoPop, 2006), by M. 
Alice LeGrow, has Alice holding a 
satanic flamingo as its frontispiece 

to chapter one, "Guriouser and 

Ben Avery and Casey Heying's The 
Oz-Wonderland Chronicles comic 
book series has, at long last, begun 
in earnest with the publication 
of #1 , with two cover variants and 
related posters. Published by Buy 
Me Toys ( 

Tommy Kovac and Sonny Liew's 
Wonderland #1, a comic book, 
traces what happens after Alice 
left Wonderland at the end of the 
classic Disney film. The story fea- 
tures the other named (but never 
seen) human character in the 
Alice books, Mary Ann. Published 
by Slave Labor Graphics (http:// 

Alice chess set and flash movie at 

An "I read banned books" brace- 
let designed with the American 
Library Association's Office of 
Intellectual Freedom shows 
six books that have often been 
banned or challenged, including 
Alices Adventures in Wonderland, 
banned in China in 1931 for put- 
ting animals and human beings on 
the same level. (It's undoubtedly 
been banned elsewhere for equally 
inane reasons.) $18. www.alastore. or 866-shop-ala. 

Su Blackwell's book sculpture in 
which pages of an edition of Won- 
derland (below) are cut to make 
a stand-up Mad Tea Party may be 
seen at 
bookcut/index.htm. The piece is 
for sale at £900, and comes in a 
mahogany display box with a glass 
front, lit inside. 



JANUARY 27, 1832